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Download free Basic Networking Tutorial course material and training (PDF ebook on 21 pages). Basic Networking Tutorial. 1 Compiled By Sangay Yeshi A computer network is a collection of two or more connected computers. When these computers are. Networks are everywhere—or so it seems. You can hardly do anything with data that does not involve a network. Like the human networks that we are all part of.

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And you dear surfers what you need? Contents What is a computer Network? Beginners Created: January 1, Size: Sangay Yeshi Downloads: Octet 4 8 bits is for local subnets and hosts - perfect for networks with less than hosts.

Network Masks A network mask helps you know which portion of the address identifies the network and which portion of the address identifies the node.


Class A, B, and C networks have default masks, also known as natural masks, as shown here: Class A: In order to see how the mask helps you identify the network and node parts of the address, convert the address and mask to binary numbers. Any address bits which have corresponding mask bits set to 1 represent the network ID.

Any address bits that have corresponding mask bits set to 0 represent the node ID. If you do not subnet, you are only able to use one network from your Class A, B, or C network, which is unrealistic. Each data link on a network must have a unique network ID, with every node on that link being a member of the same network.

If you break a major network Class A, B, or C into smaller subnetworks, it allows you to create a network of interconnecting subnetworks. For example, given a Class C network of With these three bits, it is possible to create eight subnets.

With the remaining five host ID bits, each subnet can have up to 32 host addresses, 30 of which can actually be assigned to a device since host ids of all zeros or all ones are not allowed it is very important to remember this. So, with this in mind, these subnets have been created.

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First, since you use three bits more than the "natural" Class C mask, you can denote these addresses as having a 3-bit subnet mask. Or, secondly, the mask of This second method is used with CIDR. For example, The network subnetting scheme in this section allows for eight subnets, and the network might appear as: Figure 2 Notice that each of the routers in Figure 2 is attached to four subnetworks, one subnetwork is common to both routers. Also, each router has an IP address for each subnetwork to which it is attached.

Each subnetwork could potentially support up to 30 host addresses. This brings up an interesting point. The more host bits you use for a subnet mask, the more subnets you have available. However, the more subnets available, the less host addresses available per subnet.

For example, a Class C network of If you use a mask of So in this case you can have up to 16 subnets, each of which can have up to 16 host addresses 14 of which can be assigned to devices.

Take a look at how a Class B network might be subnetted. If you have network Extending the mask to anything beyond You can quickly see that you have the ability to create a lot more subnets than with the Class C network. This allows you to have 32 subnets After using the five bits for subnetting, you are left with 11 bits for host addresses. This allows each subnet so have host addresses , of which could be assigned to devices.

Note: In the past, there were limitations to the use of a subnet 0 all subnet bits are set to zero and all ones subnet all subnet bits set to one.

Some devices would not allow the use of these subnets.

Examples Sample Exercise 1 Now that you have an understanding of subnetting, put this knowledge to use. Your task is to determine if these devices are on the same subnet or different subnets.

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You can use the address and mask of each device in order to determine to which subnet each address belongs. DeviceA: In this case, DeviceA belongs to subnet Determine the Subnet for DeviceB: Sample Exercise 2 Given the Class C network of Figure 3 Looking at the network shown in Figure 3 , you can see that you are required to create five subnets.

The largest subnet must support 28 host addresses. Is this possible with a Class C network? You can start by looking at the subnet requirement. In order to create the five needed subnets you would need to use three bits from the Class C host bits. Two bits would only allow you four subnets In order to reach cse.

If you have network Ibrahim Hussain. Each program binds a socket to its end of the connection.

So when you look at an IP address what you see is a number with two components. CIDR also depicts a more hierarchical Internet architecture, where each domain takes its IP addresses from a higher level.

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