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Read "The Buddha & His Dhamma" by Dr. Bhimrao Ramji Ambedkar available from Rakuten Kobo. Sign up today and get $5 off your first download. The Buddha . Editorial Reviews. About the Author. Bhimrao Ramji Ambedkar (14 April – 6 December THE BUDDHA AND HIS DHAMMA by [Ambedkar, Dr. Bhimrao]. Editorial Reviews. About the Author. Bhimrao Ramji Ambedkar (14 April – 6 December The Buddha and His Dhamma by [AMBEDKAR, B R].

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In response to the request by Buddhist here in India and elsewhere in the Buddhist countries of the world and also by some philosophers and religious leaders in other countries, we are now bringing out a second edition of "The Buddha and His Dhamma".

We had first published Dr. As this new and consistent commentary of the Dhamma by Dr. These publications served a very useful purpose to Indian Buddhist who treat this book as the New Testament for studying The Dhamma singly or in groups in their localities and for devoting some of their time every day to reflect on it.

It is the way of the Buddha without comparison that they find a substantial source of religious inspiration. After attaining omniscient enlightenment on Wednesday the Vaishakha Purnima day in B. The first conversion of Buddhism was started by the Blessed One with the five Parivrajakas after the first discourse Dhamma Chakka Pavattan Sutta to them and then with Yesa and his 54 companions at Sarnath in Isipatana who all became Arahats and ended after 45 years on the Vaishakha Purnima at Kusinara with the conversion of the Malla Princes of Kusinara and Subhadda who all became Arahats.

During the life of the Buddha, Buddhism was confined only to the valley of Ganges. In later centuries the relics were to be of great importance in the expansion of Buddhism which spread to other parts of India and Ceylon, Burma and South East Asia and elsewhere later on. During the period when the Buddha lived, there were three religious views prevalent in this country, they were: The views, as a result of the changing concept of the word 'religion', were passing from one stage to the other.

The world 'religion', according to Dr. Ambedkar, is an unidentified word with no fixed meaning and this is because 'religion' has passed through many stages.

The concept of each stage was called religious thought. The concept at one stage has not had the same connotation which it had in the preceding stage. Its meaning is likely to differ in the succeeding stage. The concept of religion was never fixed but it has varied from time to time. As primitive man could not explain most of the phenomena such as lightning, rain and floods, any weird performance done to control these phenomena was called magic and religion therefore came to be identified with magic.

Then came the second stage in the evolution of religion and in this stage, religion came to be identified with beliefs, rituals, ceremonies, prayers and sacrifices. They are prayers with rituals for help and gift and for acceptance of offerings.

Some sages have also speculated philosophically on the origin of the world and on the being who created it with belief and faith as a pivot. But this concept of belief that there existed some power which caused this phenomenon which a primitive man did not know and could not understand. Magic therefore lost its place at this stage and this power which was originally malevolent was felt to be benevolent and this led to beliefs, rites, ceremonies and sacrifices which became necessary both to venerate a benevolent power and also to propitiate an angry power.

Later that power was called God or Creator. Then came the third stage, that it is this God who created this world and also man. This was followed by the belief that man has a soul and the soul is eternal and is answerable to God for man's action in the world.

This in short was the evolution concept of religion at the time when Buddha was born. Thus was it that religion has come to be, connoted belief in God, belief in the soul, worship of God, curing of the erring soul, propitiating God by Prayers, Ceremonies, Sacrifices etc.

The Vedas and the other scriptures therefore speculated on this philosophy and those who wrote them at that time were a historical product of their environment, in which the above doctrines had flourished during before their time. What Buddha called the Dhamma differed fundamentally from what was called religion at that time.

Buddha's Dhamma was based on doctrines which are rationally possible. In no other religion at the values of knowledge and evil of ignorance so much insisted upon as they are in Buddhism, His religion had the glory of having rightly judge the intrinsic greatness of man's capacity of work out Ebook of Buddha and His Dhamma by Dr. Ambedkar [Be Happy- Siddhartha Chabukswar] his salvation without any extraneous aid, and of having perceived that far more of the world's misery is caused by stupidity and blind faith without any stress on knowledge.

If the worth of a truly great man consist in his raising the worth of all mankind, who is better entitled to be called truly greater than the Blessed One?

The Buddha instead of degrading him by placing another being over him has exalted him to the highest pinnacle of wisdom and love. Ambedkar, while writing this Nikaya of Buddhism — "The Buddha and his Dhamma" tested the discourses with the rigid tests laid down by the Buddha. To see whether the Buddhists canon is not adulterated with Brahminism, one has to test them and he tested them.

The tests are: As the Buddha was nothing if not rational, if not logical, anything, therefore, which is rational or logical, other things being equal may be taken to be the word of Buddha. The second test is that the Buddha never cared to enter into a discussion which was not profitable for man's welfare. Therefore anything attributed to the Buddha which did not relate to man's welfare cannot be accepted to the word of the Buddha.

There is also a third test. This is that the Buddha divided all matter into two classes, viz. On matters which fell into the first category he had stated his views definitely and conclusively and on matters which fell into the second category, he had expressed his views that they are only tentative views.

Bearing these test in mind before deciding what the view of the Buddha was, Dr. Ambedkar wrote this version "The Buddha and his Dhamma". How was the Dhamma preserved? The first council of Bhikkhu after the passing away of the Buddha had to be held at Rajgriha under the presidentship of the most senior monk Mahakashyap.

The aim of this council was to preserve the teachings of the Buddha in their truth and the purity without change or modification and also to achieve unity in that order; the first disadvantage was that there was no written script at that time and the second reason was that there was a tendency among some monks to be lax towards the Rules of the Order.

Therefore the Vinaya, as given out by Upali and the Dhamma as repeated by Anand in the council were learnt up byheart by the monks and thus preserved orally. The second council was held at Vesali after a period of years again because of certain laxities which crept into the Order.

The Vajji clan monks had modified their conduct by adding 10 modifications to the Vinaya rules to the orthodox. They started carrying salt in a horn, taking a second meal in another village and taking meals and butter milk even in the evening, drinking unfermented palm wine, using rugs without fringes, accepting gold and silver, holding fortnightly congregations in the same parish and taking decisions in the absence of some members.

These were all contrary to Vinaya. The first Monk, Yesa, of the orthodox Order convened this council which was presided over by Sabbhakami. There were monks gathered categorically rejected the 10 indulgences practiced by the Vajji clan monks. As a counter -blast to this convention of the orthodox Order the liberal Vajji clan monks, later convened the Mahasangika council consisting of 10 7 monks.

The Buddha And His Dhamma

This was, therefore, the first unfortunate split over the 10 indulgences without any doctrinal differences. Ultimately this split led to the formation of other sects and finally to Ebook of Buddha and His Dhamma by Dr. Yet a third council was convened by Moggaliputta under the patronage of the Great Buddhist Emperor Asoka but it restricted itself to the orthodox order, the Thervada sect. The Arahata son of Emperor Asoka, Mahinda was sent along with other monks to Ceylon for propagating Buddhism and that was the landmark in the migration of Theravada outside India to Ceylon and South East Asia which resulted in a rich harvest later.

There was yet a fourth council in Ceylon of the Thervada School which by that time was also called Hinayana, in the year B. By this time there was already a script in vogue and therefore this council committed the entire Pali canon and the commentaries to writing on palm leaves for the first time.

The Buddhist's canon consist Vinaya Pitaka rules of monastic life Sutta Pitaka discourses of the Buddha and Abhidhamma Pitaka philosophical contents of teachings. The Vinaya consist of a large number of rules and Sutta of Nikayas. The Abhidhamma is in Seven Prakaranas.

Early Buddhism prevailed from about B. What is the history of Buddhism in India and how did it disappear? On account of the new rational and sensitive tenets as propounded by the Buddha which make man and not faith and belief as the centre of the picture, a clash between Brahminism and Buddhism was inevitable. Ambedkar [Be Happy- Siddhartha Chabukswar] Brahminism was shaken to its foundation by Buddhism and Buddhism thrived and these continue till the end of the first century A. With the gradual decline of Buddhism there were persecutions launched by the Brahmins against Buddhists.

Bhaskar Varma of Kamrup had threatened to destroy Nalanda. There was also the murder of Aryadeva, the disciple of Nagarjun, because the Brahmins were defeated in a debate with on religion. Sasanka expelled all the monks from Kushinagar and uprooted the Gaya Bodhi tree and burnt the rest of it and replaced it by Shiva.

The final flicker of Buddhism was at Magadha under the Pala Kings; and the death -blow finally came with the Muslim conquest in the 10 th Century. It is during the decline of Buddhism after Asoka that north-west India fell before the Greek invaders but the Greeks were intolerant and an Indo- Greek King Milinda even became a great Buddhist after his first debate with monk Nagasena.

Then there was conquest by the Kushans of the Greek Kingdom but they were also acquainted with Buddhism even before they entered India and a couple of their Kings had also embraced Buddhism. The Kushan King Kaniska A. D 78 was the first unsympathetic towards Buddhism but later became a Buddhist, though he also showed special favours of Brahminism.

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It was he who had called a freat Council of the monks which was recognized in India as the 4 th Council, but which the Thervada School always ignored. The Mahayanists have however recognized the 4 th Council although it was not organized by the Mahasanghikas but was done by the less orthodox branch of the school, the Sarvastivada with its many sects.

It was because of the indulgent attitude of Kaniska towards Brahminism that during this period many ideas of Brahminism were mixed up with Buddhism especially in northern India.

Ambedkar [Be Happy- Siddhartha Chabukswar] task of Kanishka's council was the fact that the language of the commentaried was Sanskrit and not traditional Pali of the Thervada School. It is here that the Mahayana school of Buddhism came into being.

With the fall of Kaniska dynasty by about the thirf century A. The Chinese pilgrim Fahien travelling in India during these period from to A.

That is also the account given by Hieuntsang during his travel in to A. The Huns by then came down like floods from the North into Gandhara at the end of the fifth century and the Buddhist monasteries and the sacred edifices of North-west India were the special object of there fury; monks, scholars, manuscripts and buildings alike vanished in flame and blood and even the University of Taxila fell into silence without any hope of its revival.

The sacred alms bowl disappeared from Gandhara Kabul and passed on to Persia. In the meanwhile at about that time Buddhism was also engaged in an unequal struggle with Brahminism in Bengal, in west -India and in south -India.

The invasion of the Huns brought disaster and confusion for the Gupta Empire and it split into a series of petty kingdoms. With the appearance of Harsha in A. Ambedkar [Be Happy- Siddhartha Chabukswar] impress by the emperor's patronage of Buddhism; but he too showed special favors to Brahminism which by that time had become intolerant of Buddhism largely because of school of Hindu thought, "Pauranik Hinduism" or "Neo Hinduism" which had by them evolved itself and which emphasized more on the caste system.

Therefore the earliest Puranas like Agni, Vishnu, Vayu and Matsya mentioned the Buddha as one who deluded people to ruin but the later Puranas like Garuda reconciled themselves with the fading Buddhism after the 6 th Century and invoked the Buddha as an incarnation of Vishnu because by that time the new theory of incarnation was taking shape. The loss of royal patronage, the intolerance by Brahminism of the Pauranik age of Buddhism, the foreign attacks on India all contributed to the decline of Buddhism.

These continued till the 10 th Century with a small respite during to reign of the Pala Kings at Magadha but in about the year , the Muslim conquerors of India dealt a final deathblow to Buddhism in India. Much water has flowed down the Ganga since A. The ideal society in the Hinduism still consist of Chaturvarna which castes a large majority of the people into the abyss of misery and inequality.

The thesis that the Vedas are not only sacred but also infallible, the thesis that salvation Moksha of soul can be had only by due performance of Vedic sacrifies and observance of religious rights and ceremonies and offerings of gifts to Brahmins, the existing pattern of the Chaturvarniya and its rules are to all purposed which are not based on justice, liberty, equality, fraternity have to be re-examined and revised.

The Varnashram Dharma has now become out of date and many enlightened amongst all caste including Brahmins are in revolt against it. Ambedkar [Be Happy- Siddhartha Chabukswar] All thought full Hindu's who are in revolt are now of the view that they should outlaw the caste system. The Caste system cannot be outlawed unless the Varnashram ideology is abolished. Ambedkar after waiting long and after a sustain struggle revolted against these system.

The people who suffered most left the old fold and have now revived the Dhamma but the intolerance of Brahminism is again raising its head. It is persecuting the helpless Buddhist in villages and elsewhere. It is painful to see how much physical and social violence accompanies transgression of caste system in this country. In recent year while the relations between caste Hindu's and Buddhists has been generally peaceful, there are many instances of brutal violence because of belief and practice of untouchability.

The case of burning of a Harijan boy for stealing vessels in an Andhra Pradesh village and the caste Hindu women not even willing to operated by a Harijan surgeon are glaring instances.

Since the institution of untouchability is popularly and integral part of Hinduism and since caste is a major tenet of the Hindu's, concerted measures should be taken to breakdown such barriers. Buddhism is an ideal for this purpose but it should reach all the corners of the country. Untouchability, unfortunately is not merely an social or an economic problem but also a religious problem. The other way may be a major step in breaking down a caste barrier and in reforming Hinduism, by rewriting and modifying the precepts in Hindu's scriptures based on an ideology of inequality and injustice.

In accordance with the wishes of present generation in independent India. Caste system should go because Varnashram dharma leaves no room either for development of enthusiasm or for a man's individual, spiritual and social progress; enthusiasm is sine qua non. Ambedkar [Be Happy- Siddhartha Chabukswar] life becomes drudgery and man is degraded to a level of a beast. In the new thesis, there should be love to create an enthusiasm for life among those who are disowned or unowned and Dhamma to elevate those who are suppressed; it shall not only ennoble those who are disinherited and down -trodden but also grant equality, justice and liberty to all.

The revised thesis must be on the basis of the rational tenets as preached by the Buddha and must be such that it should advances the welfare of all and not merely serve the interest of self-styled super-man.

This reformation of Hinduism will not be new because such movements have taken on earlier occasions. All Upanishad are agreed in questioning the diving origin of the Vedas.

There were in the past as many as 62 different schools of philosophy at one time which were all opposed to the Brahminic philosophy. So if Hinduism is reformed and the practice of Chaturvarnashram as well as the ideology based on belief and faith is rooted out and man is recognized as the centre of everything, it will be a new school based on justice and equality.

Humanism based on the belief that "man is the measure of all things", is of the very essence of Buddhism and this should be reformed Brahminism.

But the suppressed and oppressed have no time to wait. They have waited and suffered for centuries.

They have chosen Buddhism with its democratic and egalitarian ideal. With the conversion of Dr. Ambedkar and his lakhs of followers on the Vijayadashmi in , Buddhism has been again revived in India and the Lord has return to his native 13 Ebook of Buddha and His Dhamma by Dr. Ambedkar [Be Happy- Siddhartha Chabukswar] land. The name of Buddha which was relegated to the background in this country is again shining in each and every village, especially of Maharashtra, The Punjab, Uttar Pradesh and elsewhere, because Dr.

Ambedkar's followers are a force to be reckoned within these villages. We must all see that this great religion is revived in this country to bring about justice, equality and socialism for all the people.

Ambedkar in his address on the day of conversion in October , said, "Hindu religion offers no opportunity for the untouchables to improve there lot, for, it is based on inequality. On the other hand Buddhism is based on equality and justice. I would like to see all India become Buddhist. Ambedkar while paying tribute to Buddha's greatness in the Epilogue of this Book asked all the Buddhist to take a Vow to spread the Dhamma to all.

Let us therefore, all make a solemn vow to comprehend the truth and to perceive the path led down by the Buddha perfectly. The fulfillment of this desire of Dr. Ambedkar to bring Buddhism in India with all its beauty, compassion, greatness, gentleness to all his people would have been a challenging task to him, and Dr.

Ambedkar with his great ability and devotion could have done it but he did not live even to begin these wonderful task but passed away only 2 months after his conversion on 6 th December All the Buddhist should take up this challenging task and fulfill the noble aspiration of Dr.

Ambedkar and pray like Dr. Rabindranath Tagore: Bombay, Justice R. Ambedkar, the founder Chariman of the Society. The book is not only Dr. Ambedkar's monumenral work but also his memorial enshrining the noblest fruit of his massive intellect. This book has taken its shape after his much arduous study and research.

This is his precious offering to Siddharth. The writing of this work was a veritable labour of love to Dr.

Ambedkar who came under the compelling influence of Siddharth, the apostle of reason. This book therefore can be fittingly remarked as the culmination of his labours on this earth. Ambedkar was brought up in an exemplary religious atmosphere. A follower of Kabir, his father was a meticulous observer of the percepts of his Panth.

He insisted that his children read something every day which elevated them Dr. Ambedkar and his elder brother therefore had tro read aloud every day some portion of Mahabharata and the Ramayan before goin to bed. When asked why the Mahabharata should be read, he was told by his fatherthat he believed that the exploits of Drona and Kama would disabuse him of an inferiority complex, because they had their humble origin to start with.

Similarly, he was preached about Valmiki who wrote the Ramayana. The daily reading of these books by the young Ambedkar acquainted him richly with the Hindu mythology and imparted a religious sentiment in him. On his getting through the Middle School Final Examination this young boy was introduced to Dada Keluskar who was a friend of his father.

Dada Keluskar once presented to this young man his own book on the life of Buddha. Ambedkar [Be Happy- Siddhartha Chabukswar] he read in this book conflicted with what he had learn in the two Hindu mythologies. He fortunately did not come to this book with and empty mind. He compared and contrasted at every stage these conflics. Indeed, this was the origin of Ambedkar's intrest in the Buddha and his Dhamma. Before writing this monumental work, Ambedkar traversed numerous fields of thought and action.

He digested various concepts of different religions of the world. The more he digested different convepts of religions, the more was he convinced that the basic and ideal foundation of our present society should be on the basis of Buddha's Dhamma. The first spark in respect of this work came to him in when the Mahabodhi Society of Calcutta requested him to write an article for that Journal's Vaishakhi Number. In that article he laid down that the only religion acceptable to modern society would be Buddha's religion, and that, if that is not done, then the society would perish.

According to him, no other concept of religion appeals to the intellectual, scientific and modern mind more than Dhamma of Buddha. If Buddhism was meeting with little response in the modern world, Ambedkar believed that this was due to the fact that its literature is too extensive and scattered, that it is therefore difficult to get a good idea of that religion.

What was needed therefore according to him was a simple and a clear statement of the corpus of the fundamental Buddhist thoughts. He unfolds his Dhamma by telling the life of the Siddharth is simple, clear and dignified language.

During his span of life Dr. Ambedkar's writings covered a variety of topics. Sometimes they were controversial; sometimes they were non-controversial. Ambedkar [Be Happy- Siddhartha Chabukswar] invariably displayed his robust endeavour of underline social justice, the good of his country and the salvation of the lowest and the common man here.

The present publication is unique. During the last portion of his precious career, he devoted his unsparing labour and entire devotion to the writing of this book. The completion of this work was a fulfillment. As such it is a memorable book which he regarded as his magnum opus.

Our late Chairman had intended that this work should be the first venture in publication by our People's Education Soceity. He further intended that this first venture in publication should be followed by other contributions by eminent scholars and teachers in various colleges conducted by our Society.

We do hope that, inspired by this great work, other will follow suit. Finally it remains me to express our thanks to all those who took an intrest in the publication of this book, particularly to Mr. Nanak Chand Rattu and Mr. Prakash Chand, who out of sheer devotion to our late Chairman took great pains in preparing the press -copy.

Ahmednagar, 19 th November Along with it there is naturally a growing demand for a clear and consistent statement of the life and teachings of the Buddha. Anyone who is not a Buddhist finds it extremely difficult to present the life and teachings of the Buddha in a manner which would make it a consistent whole.

Depending on the Nikayas, not only the presentation of a consistent story of the life of the Buddha becomes a difficult thing and the presentation of some parts of his teachings becomes much more so. Indeed it would not be an exaggeration to say that of all the founders of religions in the world the presentation of the life and teachings of the founder of Buddhism presents a problem which is quite puzzling if not baffling. Is it not necessary that these problems should be solved and the path for the understanding of Buddhism be made clear?

Is it not time that those who are Buddhists should take up these problems at least for general discussion and throw that light they can on these problems? With a view to raise a discussion on these problems I propose to set them out here.

The first problem relates to the main event in the life of the Buddha, namely, Parivraja. Why did the Buddha take Parivraja? The traditional answer is that he took Parivraja because he saw a dead person, a sick person and an old person. This answer is absurd on the face of it. The Buddha took parivraja at the age of If he took Parivraja as a result of these three sights, how is it he did not see these three sights earlier?

These are common events occurring by hundreds and the Buddha could not have failed to some across them earlier. It is impossible to accept the traditional explanation that this was the first time he saw them. The explanation is not plausible and does not appeal to reason. But if this is not the answer to the question, what is the real answer?

Buddha and His Dhamma (MP3 audiobook)

The second problem is created by the four Aryan Truths. Do they form part of the original teachings of the Buddha? This formula cuts at the root of Buddhism. If life is sorrow, death is sorrow and rebirth is sorrow, then there is an end of everything. Neither religion nor philosophy can help a man to achieve happiness in the world. Ambedkar [Be Happy- Siddhartha Chabukswar] there is no escape from sorrow, then what can religion do, what can Buddha do to relieve man from such sorrow which is ever there in birth itself?

The four Aryan Truths are a great stumbling block in the way of non-Buddhists accepting the gospel of Buddhism. For the four Aryan Truths deny hope to man. The four Aryan Truths make the gospel of the Buddha a gospel of pessimism. Do they form part of the original gospel or are they a later accretion by the monks?

The third problem relates to the doctrines of soul, of karma and rebirth. The Buddha denied the existence of the soul. But he is also said to have affirmed the doctrine of karma and rebirth. At once a question arises. If there is no soul, how can there be karma?

If there is no soul, how can there be rebirth? These are baffling questions. In what sense did the Buddha use the words karma and rebirth? Did he use them in the same sense in which the Brahmins used them? If so, is there not a terrible contradiction between the denial of the soul and the affirmation of karma and rebirth?

This contradiction needs to be resolved. The fourth problem relates to the Bhikkhu.

What was the object of the Buddha in creating the Bhikkhu? Was the object to create a perfect man? Or was his object to create a social servant devoting his life to service of the people and being their friend, guide and hilosopher? This is a very real question. On it depends the future of Buddhism. If the Bhikkhu is only a perfect man he is of no use to the propagation of Buddhism because though a perfect man he is a selfish man. If, on the other hand, he is a social servant he may prove to be the hope of Buddhism.

The question must be decided not so much in the interest of doctrinal consistency but in the interest of the future of Buddhism. If I may say so, the pages of the journal of the Mahabodhi Society make, to me at any rate, dull reading.

This is not because the material presented is not interesting and instructive. The dullness is due to the fact that it seems to fall upon a passive set of readers. After reading an article, one likes to know what the reader of the journal has to say about it. But the reader never gives out his reaction. This silence on the part of the reader is a great discouragement to the writer.

I hope my question will excite the readers to come and make their contribution to their solution. Ambedkar [Be Happy- Siddhartha Chabukswar] PROLOGUE " From time to time men find themselves forced to reconsider current and inherited beliefs and ideas, to gain some harmony between present and past experience, and to reach a position which shall satisfy the demands of feeling and reflexion and give confidence for facing the future.

If, at the present day, religion, as a subject of critical or scientific inquiry, of both practical and theoretical significance has attracted increasing attention, this can be ascribed to a the rapid progress of scientific knowledge and thought ; b the deeper intellectual interest in the subject ; c the widespread tendencies in all parts of the world to reform or reconstruct religion, or even to replace it by some body of thought, more ' rational ' and ' scientific ' or less ' superstitious ' ; and d the effect of social, political, and international events of a sort which, in the past, have both influenced and been influenced by religion.

Whenever the ethical or moral value of activities or conditions is questioned, the value of religion is involved ; and all deep -stirring experiences invariably compel a reconsideration of the most fundamental ideas, whether they are explicitly religious or not.

Ultimately there arise problems of justice, human destiny, God, and the universe ; and these in turn involve problems of the relation between ' religious ' and other ideas, the validity of ordinary knowledge, and practicable conceptions of 'experience' and 'reality.

Tributes to the Buddha's Greatness. A Vow to Spread His Dhamma. Ambedkar [Be Happy- Siddhartha Chabukswar] ":: BOOK I:: His Ancestry:: His Birth:: Visit by Asita:: Death of Mahamaya:: Childhood and Education:: Early Traits:: Father's Plans to Save His Son:: The Prime Minister's Admonition 3 to the Prince:: Initiation into the Sakya Sangh:: Conflict with the Sangh:: Offer of Exile:: Parivraja — the Way Out:: Parting Words:: Leaving His Home:: The Prince and the Servant:: The Return of Channa:: The Family in Mourning:: Going back to the sixth century B.

The country was divided into many States, some large, some small. Of these some were monarchical and some non-monarchical. The monarchical States were altogether sixteen in number. The monarchical States were known as Janapada and the non- monarchical as Sangh or Gana.

Not much is known about the nature of the polity of the Sakyas of Kapilvatsu, whether it was republican or oligarchic. This much, however, is definitely known, that there were many ruling families in the Republic of the Sakyas and that they ruled in turns. The head of the ruling family was known as Raja. At the time of the birth of Siddharth Gautama it was the turn of Suddhodana to be the Raja. The Sakya State was situated in the northeast corner of India. It was an independent State. But at a later stage the King of Kosala had succeeded in establishing his paramountcy over it.

The result of this paramountcy was that the Sakya State could not exercise certain sovereign powers without the sanction of the King of Kosala. Ambedkar [Be Happy- Siddhartha Chabukswar] Of the kingdoms then in existence, Kosala was a powerful kingdom. So was the kingdom of Magadha. The capital of the Sakyas was the city called Kapilavatsu, perhaps after the name of the great Rationalist Kapila. There lived in Kapilavastu a Sakya by name Jaya Sena.

Sinahu was his son. Sinahu was married to Kaccana. Besides five sons, Sinahu had two daughters, Amita and Pamita. The Gotra of the-family was Aditya. Suddhodana was married to Mahamaya Her father's name was Anjana and mother's Sulak-shana. Anjana was a Koliya and was residing in the village called Devadaha. Suddhodana was a man of great military prowess. When Suddhodana had shown his martial powers he was allowed to take a second wife and he chose Mahaprajapati.

She was the elder sister of Mahamaya. Suddhodana was a wealthy person. The lands he held were very extensive and the retinue under him was very large. He employed, it is said, one thousand ploughs to till the land he owned. He lived quite a luxurious life and had many palaces.

To Suddhodana was born Siddharth Gautama and this was the manner of Gautama's birth. It was a custom among the Sakyas to observe an annual midsummer festival which fell in the month of Ashad. It was celebrated by all the Sakyas throughout the State and also by the members of the ruling family. It was the usual practice to celebrate the festival for seven days. Ambedkar [Be Happy- Siddhartha Chabukswar] 4. On one occasion Mahamaya decided to observe the festival with gaiety, with splendour, with flowers, with perfume, but without drinking intoxicants.

On the seventh day she rose early, bathed in scented water, bestowed a gift of 4,00, pieces of money as alms, adorned herself with all precious ornaments, ate choicest food, took upon herself the fast-day vows, and entered the splendidly adorned royal bedchamber to sleep.

That night Suddhodana and Mahamaya came together and Mahamaya conceived. Lying on the royal bed she fell asleep. While asleep she had a dream. In her dreams she saw that the four world-guardians raised her as she was sleeping on her bed and carried her to the tableland of the Himalayas, placed her under a great sal tree and stood on one side.

The wives of the four world-guardians then approached and took her to the lake Mansarovar. They bathed her, robed her in a dress, anointed her with perfumes and decked her with flowers in a manner fit to meet some divinity. Then a Bodhisatta, by name Sumedha, appeared before her saying, " I have decided to take my last and final birth on this earth, will you consent to be my mother?

Next morning Mahamaya told her dream to Suddhodana. Not knowing how to interpret the dream, Suddhodana summoned eight Brahmins who were most famous in divination. He caused the ground to be strewn with festive flowers and prepared high seats for them. He filled the bowls of the Brahmins with gold and silver and fed them on cooked ghee, honey, sugar and excellent rice and milk. He also gave them other gifts such as new clothes and tawny cows. When the Brahmins were propitiated, Sud-dhodana related to them the dream Mahamaya had, and said, " Tell me what it means.

The Brahmins said: You will have a son, and if he leads a householder's life he will become a universal monarch, and if he leaves his home and goes forth into a homeless state, and becomes a sanyasi, he will 26 Ebook of Buddha and His Dhamma by Dr. Bearing the Bodhisatta in her womb like oil in a vessel for ten lunar months, Mahamaya, as her time of delivery was coming nearer, desired to go to her parents' home for delivery.

Addressing her husband, she said: Having seated her in a golden palanquin borne by couriers, he sent her forth with a great retinue to her father's house. Mahamaya, on her way to Devadaha, had to pass through a pleasure- grove of sal trees and other trees, flowering and non-flowering. The epub, azw3 and mobi eBook versions therefore serve as functional equivalents to an offline mirror of the sutta portion of the site.

Note re the pdf version: The pdf is almost 2, pages long and will be almost completely unusable on small devices and quite laggy even on a computer. This anthology contains complete translations of ten suttas, and partial translations of two. It takes its name from the length of the discourses it contains: shorter than those in the Long Collection, longer than those in the Connected and Numerical Collections.

There are suttas in all. This anthology offers complete translations of 78 of these suttas, and excerpts from five.

However, when they were collected they were organized for ease of memorization, not for ease of study. So, as an introduction to the collection, here is a list of suttas organized by topic , from the more fundamental to the more advanced.

In some cases, the theme is a topic. In others it may be the name of an interlocutor, a place, a group of people, or—as in the Simile-Connected discourses—a formal attribute of the discourses themselves. The complete collection, counting all its formulaic expansions, contains more than 2, discourses, of which are translated here.

No single English term can convey the full meaning of this name, although the translation Numerical Collection gives a workable idea of the principle behind it.

The complete collection, counting all its formulaic expansions, contains more than 9, discourses. When these expansions are not counted, the total comes to approximately 2, discourses, of which are translated here.

In nine short passages it covers the basic topics that one would need to know when beginning Buddhist monastic life; many of the passages also serve as useful introductions to Buddhist practice in general.

The itivuttakas cover the full range of Buddhist practice.Meeting the prince all alone, Udayin said: Siddharth Gautama said: Choose your country's store to see books available for download.

I must continue to be a Parivrajaka. Helena Roerich. The art of fighting can be learned only through hunting for only by hunting can you learn how to aim accurately.

LENARD from Portland
I do love reading novels annually . Feel free to read my other posts. I'm keen on meditation.