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VLSI DESIGN TECHNIQUES. FOR ANALOG. AND DIGITAL CIRCUITS. Randall L. Geiger. Department of Electrical Engineering. Texas A&M University. [DOWNLOAD] Vlsi Design Techniques for Analog and Digital Circuits by Randall L. Geiger, Phillip E. Allen, Noel R. Strader. Book file PDF easily for everyone. Vlsi Design Techniques For Analog And Digital Circuits Mcgraw Hill Circuits McGraw Hill Series in Electrical Engineering PDF File PDF Free Download Here s.
As a result, the level of actual logic integration tends to fall short of the integration level achievable with the current processing technology. Sophisticated computer-aided design CAD tools and methodologies are developed and applied in order to manage the rapidly increasing design complexity.
It starts with a given set of requirements. Initial design is developed and tested against the requirements. When requirements are not met, the design has to be improved.
If such improvement is either not possible or too costly, then the revision of requirements and its impact analysis must be considered. The Y-chart first introduced by D. Gajski shown in Fig. The Y-chart consists of three major domains, namely: behavioral domain, structural domain, geometrical layout domain.
The design flow starts from the algorithm that describes the behavior of the target chip. The corresponding architecture of the processor is first defined. It is mapped onto the chip surface by floorplanning. The next design evolution in the behavioral domain defines finite state machines FSMs which are structurally implemented with functional modules such as registers and arithmetic logic units ALUs. These modules are then geometrically placed onto the chip surface using CAD tools for automatic module placement followed by routing, with a goal of minimizing the interconnects area and signal delays.
The third evolution starts with a behavioral module description. Individual modules are then implemented with leaf cells. The last evolution involves a detailed Boolean description of leaf cells followed by a transistor level implementation of leaf cells and mask generation. In standard-cell based design, leaf cells are already pre-designed and stored in a library for logic design use.
Note that the verification of design plays a very important role in every step during this process. The failure to properly verify a design in its early phases typically causes significant and expensive re-design at a later stage, which ultimately increases the time-to-market. Although the design process has been described in linear fashion for simplicity, in reality there are many iterations back and forth, especially between any two neighboring steps, and occasionally even remotely separated pairs.
Although top-down design flow provides an excellent design process control, in reality, there is no truly unidirectional top-down design flow.
Vlsi Design Techniques for Analog and Digital Circuits.pdf
Both top-down and bottom-up approaches have to be combined. For instance, if a chip designer defined an architecture without close estimation of the corresponding chip area, then it is very likely that the resulting chip layout exceeds the area limit of the available technology.
In such a case, in order to fit the architecture into the allowable chip area, some functions may have to be removed and the design process must be repeated. Such changes may require significant modification of the original requirements. Thus, it is very important to feed forward low-level information to higher levels bottom up as early as possible.
In the following, we will examine design methodologies and structured approaches which have been developed over the years to deal with both complex hardware and software projects.
Regardless of the actual size of the project, the basic principles of structured design will improve the prospects of success. Some of the classical techniques for reducing the complexity of IC design are: Hierarchy, regularity, modularity and locality. This approach is very similar to the software case where large programs are split into smaller and smaller sections until simple subroutines, with well-defined functions and interfaces, can be written. In Section 1. Correspondingly, a hierarchy structure can be described in each domain separately.
However, it is important for the simplicity of design that the hierarchies in different domains can be mapped into each other easily. As an example of structural hierarchy, Fig. The adder can be decomposed progressively into one- bit adders, separate carry and sum circuits, and finally, into individual logic gates.
At this lower level of the hierarchy, the design of a simple circuit realizing a well-defined Boolean function is much more easier to handle than at the higher levels of the hierarchy. In the physical domain, partitioning a complex system into its various functional blocks will provide a valuable guidance for the actual realization of these blocks on chip.
Obviously, the approximate shape and size area of each sub-module should be estimated in order to provide a useful floorplan.
Vlsi Design Techniques for Analog and Digital Circuits.pdf
This physical view describes the external geometry of the adder, the locations of input and output pins, and how pin locations allow some signals in this case the carry signals to be transferred from one sub-block to the other without external routing. At lower levels of the physical hierarchy, the internal mask Figure Finally, Fig. They suffer from the current conveyor CC introduced in drawback that the output voltage does .
The speed and bandwidth of ana- The bandwidth of VMCs is usually log circuits depend strongly on circuit low. The slew rate SR is also not very capacitances, which arise partly be- high.
Rajput received the B. His research interests include low voltage analog circuit design, instrument design for space applications, digital signal processing applications, fault tolerant design, and fault detection.
He joined the Ph. Jamuar and submitted a thesis on low voltage current mode analog circuit structures and their applications. In deep power due to non-zero current of sub-micron technologies, interconnect MOSFETs in the OFF state in digital capacitance dominates; and simple re- circuits or biasing current in analog cir- duction of the transistor sizes will not cuits, and the short-circuit power due have a proportional impact in band- to current flowing during the lapse of width improvement.
Thus the main interest is to lays and susceptibility for substrate minimize PTOTAL and the obvious way noise coupling, cross talk and other to reduce it would be to operate the cir- phenomena. Voltage reductions guarantee the reliability of devices as the lower elec- Low Voltage Design trical fields inside oxide layers of a Applications do exist where it is MOSFET produce less risk to the thin- crucial that current levels are ex- ner oxides, which result from device tremely small and supply voltage be scaling.
Thus one of the solutions of also low. These applications include all the problems lies in the adoption of low voltage circuits in biomedical en- low voltage techniques in analog cir- gineering and mobile communication, cuit designs so that these MOSFETs by way of example. Reduc- and large dynamic range. One of the tion in VT is dependent on the device factors which affects these parameters technology.
Higher VT gives better is power dissipation in the circuit. So noise immunity and the lower VT re- it is essential to identify the agents of duces the noise margin to result in poor power consumption and minimize SNR. Hence, for present day CMOS them.
There are three main compo- technology, reduction in VT is limited nents of power dissipation in any cir- to the noise floor level, below which cuit, namely, dynamic power caused further reduction will introduce an by charging and discharging of usu- amount of noise sufficient to result in ally parasitic capacitance, static very complex circuits. The restriction S. Jamuar was born on November 27, He received the B. Tech and Ph. He worked as research assistant, senior research fellow and senior research assistant between and at IIT Kanpur.
During —76, he was with Hindustan Aeronautics Ltd. Subsequently he joined the Lasers and Spectroscopy Group in the Physics Department at IIT Kanpur, where he was involved in the design of various types of laser systems.
He joined IIT Delhi in His area of interest includes electronic circuit design, instrumentation and communication systems. Use of low voltage high performing build- VDS ing blocks in low voltage analog cir- cuits is another promising approach and yields a modular design concept in analog circuits as well [9, 13].
We will VGS briefly look into these techniques. Sub-Threshold Circuits Circuits operating in the sub- threshold region have gained impor- Figure 1.
Input voltage characteristics of the CM. This gives larger voltage VDS, which correspond to the ohmic swings at low-supply voltage even in region of operation.
However, it tively. In a physical device, cannot be high as in the case of bipo- such an abrupt change does not occur.
In is similar to any conventional CM. The the sub-threshold region IDS is given by simulated output current characteris- [6, 11, 13, 26, 27] tics of the CM are shown in Fig. Output current voltage characteristics of the CM.
This compliance processing task, there should be some voltage can further be decreased if we biasing current through its drain. This use the level shifter technique dis- biasing current in a conventional gate cussed later.
However, in the bulk There are several limitations of driven technique shown in Fig. First, the frequency response of so as to have a continuous drain cur- devices is poor.
Second the drain and source substrate currents associated with the reverse biased moat-substrate VDD junction are not necessarily negligible compared to sub-threshold drain cur- rent. This makes the low voltage circuit design V in quite complicated. Further, these cir- cuits are meant for very low currents and are not suitable for medium power instruments.
The the bulk contact. Thus I in I out the bulk driven MOSFET operates as a depletion type device; and it can work with negative, zero or slightly positive bias voltages also. We take the example of a simple current mirror shown in Fig. The required input compli- ance voltage is sufficiently low in this M1 case and is about VT.
V SS The bulk driven technique re- moves the threshold voltage require- Figure 8. However the foremost disadvantage of the bulk M1 and M2 are tied to positive supply driven technique requires all the in this configuration.
Other disadvantages of the bulk equal to drain saturation current, and driven technique for low voltage cir- are supplied by two current sources as cuit applications are as follows. The input current I. It of 0. Bulk driven MOSFETs are fabri- cated in differential wells to have isolated bulk terminals and the matching between bulk-driven Figure 9.
For high gain, one needs high output impedance of the devices, and short channel MOSFETs cannot provide high gain structures. To obtain high output im- pedance, one uses cascode structure as I bias shown in Fig. The use of cascode structure increases the gain but it de- creases the output signal swing at the same time.
The output signal swing Figure JFET equivalent circuit of the circuit shown in Fig. A cascode CM. Iin Iout used in low voltage systems [9, 12—14]. M4 M3 If this circuit is modified in such a way that the biasing of the transistor M2 does not affect the output voltage swing, the output impedance of the structure can be increased to have high M1 gain structures at low voltage levels. M2 This is achieved by having an indepen- dent biasing for M2 as shown in Fig.
Although high gain is pro- vided by the structure shown in Fig. Thus there V SS is interest in alternative schemes.
An- other possibility is to use the same gate design of current mirrors. This decrease bias for both M1 and M2. Because the in the output voltage is due to the struc- gate biasing is the same, it is called a ture followed in the design of cascode self-cascode structure.
A self-cascode biasing. Because VT is of the order of does not require high compliance volt- 0. This approach has potential ap- ID plications in low voltage design. A self-cascode is a 2-transistor structure as shown in Fig. The lower transistor M1 is equivalent to a resistor whose value S is input dependent. For the composite transistor, the effective transconductance gm effective will Figure The voltage between source and Iin Iout drain of M1 is small, and there is no appreciable difference between the VDSAT of composite and simple transis- tors; and a self-cascode can be used in M3 low voltage operation.
The operating voltage of a regular cascode is much higher than that of a self-cascode. The advantage offered by self-cascode structure is that it offers M1 high output impedance similar to that M2 of a cascode structure while output voltage requirements are similar to those of a single transistor.
A current mirror developed using self-cascode structure is shown in Fig. It may cites up to colors before you met it. The blog will be been to your site message. It may takes up to results before you exerted it.
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Failure analysis on any returns Plan for next generation chip using production information if possible Roughly saying, digital IC design can be divided into three parts. The concept of modularity enables the parallelisation of the design process.
Here, the numbers for circuit complexity should be interpreted only as representative examples to show the order-of-magnitude. To this technique requires fabrication of understand the technique, we take the the floating gates.
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