Basic Electronics and Linear Circuits. By N. N. Bhargava, N. N. Bhargava S. C. Gupta D. C. Kulshreshtha. About this book · Shop for Books on Google Play. N.N. Bhargava- Basic Electronics and Linear Circuits - Ebook download as PDF File .pdf), Text File .txt) or read book online. N.N. Bhargava- Basic Electronics. N.N. Bhargava- Basic Electronics and Linear Circuits - Ebook download as PDF File .pdf), Text File .txt) or read book online. for basic elctronics.

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To give you a basic background of electronics engineering, which is required for. ▫. Troubleshooting, understanding and making of electrical/electronics circuits/. Books Basic Electronics And Linear Circuits Nn Bhargava Pdf DOWNLOAD NOW an basic concepts of linear regulator and switching - a n an Basic Electronics and Linear Circuits book. Read 12 reviews from the world's largest community for readers.

A space is left between a numeral and the symbol except in case of the permitted non-SI units for angular measurements.

Symbols for units do not take a plural form with added 's'. Name three primary uses of capacitors? This type of confusion will not occur if we follow the rule that the denominators of compound units are always expressed in the base units and not in their multiples or submultiples.

What is the range of capacitance values available in ceramic capacitors? In complicated cases. Explain constructional features of a wire-wound resistor. What are the modem trends in electronics? Symbols for other units are not written with capital letter.

Before understanding electronic circuits. No full stops or hyphens or other punctuation marks should be used within or at the end of the symbols for units. A few examples are given below: Correct Incorrect a b State what is meant by radar? Mention some of its important applications In numerals of four digits.

What is meant by electronics? Give some important applications of inductors. When we rotate the tuning control. The term IC. What is a trimmer capacitor? Describe the basic construction of a mica trimmer capacitor. The colour bands on a fixed carbon resistor are: What is an inductor? What is the unit of inductance? When you adjust the volume control knob of your radio receiver. Choose the alternative that completes the statement correctly.

Write down the seven base units in SI units. A resistor has a colour band sequence: The sequence of the colour band on this resistor should be a yellow. By rotating the volume control in a radio receiver. Electronics is that branch of engineering which deals with the application of a high-current machines b production of electronic components c electronic devices d fission of uranium nuclei From this information.

Below are some incomplete statements. For what purpose can a transformer be used in an eJectronic circuit? Which one of the following is used as a passive component in electronic circuits? Four alternatives are provided for each.. With the help of a computer. When you rotate this control. Such a large value of capacitance is possible if the capacitor is a a mica capacitor b a ceramic capacitor d an electrolytic capacitor c an air-gang capacitor Introduction to Electronics 27 6.

One of the examples of an active device is a an electric bulb b a transformer c a loudspeaker d a silicon controlled rectifier SCR 3. What forms the dielectric of an electrolytic capacitor? Why is the electrolytic capacitor polarised? Name a few active components devices used in electronic circuits. With the help ofradar. While tuning your radio receiver to a desired station. May it not be identical with it. A source is. The source may supply either de direct current or ac alternating current.

The terminology de as employed here stands for any quantity that is steady.. An ac voltage can be converted into a unidirectional voltage by using a a power amplifier circuit b an oscillator circuit c a multivibrator circuit d a rectifier circuit Answers.

The secondary cell is rechargeable. But the cells used in a torch are of primary type. These ions carry the charge inside the cell from one electrode to the other. It has a rotating shaft. When dissolved in a solution. Solar cells are in the developmental stage. A battery consists of a series or parallel combination of two or more similar cells. Generally speaking. Each has two electrodes one positive and the other negative which are immersed in an electrolyte.

The adaptor used with a laptop is also of this type. When its shaft is rotated. A de laboratory supply ofthis type is shown in Fig. Some de sources are battery. The battery used in a car is of secondary type. Cells can be divided into primary and secondary types.. The term battery is derived from the expression "battery of cells". A cell is the fundamental source of electrical energy. When this shaft is rotated at the specified speed by some external agency such as a steam turbine or water turbine.

Figure 2. These type of alternators are used in most electric power stations. Electronics has hardly anything to do with such alternators. Unless stated otherwise. A battery and some cells Fig. This process will be discussed in detail in Unit 4. It contains a rectifier which converts time-varying voltage. Electrolytes are chemical compounds. The terminal voltage VT is -. Since the net voltage that sends current into the circuit is 1. The total resistance in the circuit is now 0.

Some signal generators are capable of giving other type of waveforms. The frequency of the ac signal supplied by this instrument can be varied. In the equivalent circuit of Fig.

Let Vs be its open-circuit voltage i. Under this condition. When a voltage source supplies power to a load. Such a reduction in the terminal voltage of the cell may be explained as follows. The resistance of the electrolyte between the electrodes. A cell used in a torch has a voltage of 1.

It is due to this internal impedance that the source does not behave ideally. It means that the terminals AB of the source are open-circuited. The internal resistance or impedance in case of ac source of a source may be due to one or more of the following reasons: Let it be connected to a load impedance ZL whose value can be varied.

The resistance of the armature winding in case of an alternator or a de generator. The output impedance of the active device like a transistor in case of an oscillator or signal generator and rectification-type de supply. When we say "cell of 1. This voltage is used as a signal to test the working of different electronic circuits such as an amplifier. I 1Vs. It it could do so.. A practical voltage source can be considered to consist of an ideal voltage source in series with an impedance.

In Eq Let us now connect a finite load impedance ZL. Load impedance. Load current.. This is not possible. The symbolic representation of de and ac ideal voltage source are given in Fig. When we reduce the value of load impedance.

As we do this. This impedance is called the internal impedance of the source. The symbolic representation of practical voltage sources are shown in Fig. Even if the load impedance changes. As a result.

Basic Electronics and Linear Circuits

Such a source can then be said to. The voltage drop across Zs also goes on increasing. There is no source which can maintain its terminal voltage constant when its terminals are short-circuited. V-1 characteristics of an ideal voltage source Fig.

In other words. When the load resistance becomes 10 Q These are the terminals available for making external connections. A Q. In the de source.

OV xRu With respect to the maximum value. In the first case. In the ac source in Fig. When the load resistance varies between its extreme limits-from 1 Q to 10 Q-the terminal voltage varies from 1 V to 1.

In the next half-cycle of ac. When the load resistance RL is 1 Q. We can find the variation in the terminal voltage of the source. Let us now find the variation in the terminal voltage of the source. This is certainly a large variation.

In some books. In the second case. Let us consider an example. It is connected to a load resistance RL as shown in Fig. It is the value of the internal impedance relative to the load impedance that is important. The marking of positive and negative on an ac source does not mean the same thing as the markings on a de source. Let us consider another example. When the load impedance is 50 ill. We can again find the terminal voltage as The question naturally arises: What should be the characteristics of a source so that it may be considered a good enough constant voltage source?

An ideal voltage source. B a Fig. Here in ac. A de source has an open-circuit voltage of 2 V. The load impedance ZL can vary from 50 ill to kQ-again a variation having the same ratio of 1: In practice. The symbolic representation of such a practical current source is shown in Fig.

A practical current source is represented by the symbol shown in Fig. It means there should be some path inside the source itself through which the current Is can flow. The inside path has an impedance Zs. The source impedance Zs is put in parallel with the ideal current source ls.

That is why. The reason why an actual source does not work as an ideal current source is that its internal impedance is not infinite. The V-1 characteristic of a practical voltage source then looks like the one shown in Fig.

It will become clearer in later chapters.

Basic Electronics and Linear Circuits

The introduction of semiconductor devices such as the transistor is responsible. It is sometimes preferred to take voltage on the x-axis and current on the y-axis. Of course. When some finite load impedance is connected. If the source could maintain a current Is through an infinitely large load impedance. When the load current increases. The characteristic is then modified to that shown in Fig.. The remaining current goes through the path Fig.

Do not be alarmed if the concept of a current source is strange and somewhat confusing at this point. Let us find the conditions under which a source can work as a good practical current source.

As stated above.

It is now an infinite value. It means even if ZL is made infinity. Let us connect a variable load impedance ZL to a constant current source as shown in Fig. When the load impedance ZL is made infinite i. It means that the source does not have to supply infinite power. The arrow inside the circle indicates the direction in which current will flow in the circuit when a load is connected to the source.

A symbolic representation of such an ideal current source is shown in Fig. It would then have consumed infinite power from the source. The current Is now divides itself between two branches--one made of the source impedance Zs inside the source itself.

In Fig. Let us find out the open-circuit voltage in the current-source representation of Fig. For a given increase in load impedance ZL. From the circuit point of view.. In other words..

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There is no voltage drop across the internal impedance Zs1. In fact.. If the value of the load impedance is very large compared to the internal impedance of the source.

The terminal voltage is then the voltage drop across this imped. But the current obtained by shorting the terminals A and B of Fig. When the terminals A and B are open-circuited. On the other hand. The V-I characteristic of a practical current source is shown in Fig.

The source then behaves as a good current source. That is 2. In fact. It merely depends upon Again. This means that current source in Fig. These are the two representations of the same source. SX L2 - By making use ofEq. The source impedance of 1 Q is connected in parallel with this current source. IQ 'eB Fig. Since the current divides itself into two branches in inverse proportion of the impedances.

To test this. The equivalent current source obtained is shown in Fig. We may convert a given voltage source into its equivalent current source by using Eq.

Ifwe short circuit the terminal A and B of the voltage source. The current in the 40 kQ impedance can be determined as follows: We can connect the net load impedance ZL of 8 kQ.

Here we convert the given current source into its equivalent voltage source. The current [z divides into two parallel branches. The source impedance Zs is put in series with the ideal voltage source. The loop current can be calculated by applying Kirchhoff's voltage law. A r-'.. Example This would be the parallel combination of the two impedances.

The circuit in Fig. The open-circuit voltage of the source is given as 3 r-'.. A 8kQ 3. A net impedance of 8 kQ is shown to be connected across the source terminals A and B.

ZL A current source connected to a load Solution: Let us first determine the net load impedance that is connected across the source terminals A and B..

The open-circuit voltage across terminals A and B. When the load current varies. Its symbol is shown in Fig. It the load impedance RL varies. We need another voltage source for its operation.

Basic Electronics And Linear Circuits

We can now apply the basics of circuit theory to determine the characteristic behaviour of the electronic circuit. B Fig. This is an example of simple voltage regulator circuit.

Loosely speaking. Once it is connected in an electrical circuit.

Basic Electronics and Linear Circuits_N. N. Bhargava, D. C. Kulshreshtha and S. C. Gupta

Another important device is the transistor. The transistor is extensively used as an amplifying device. The only difference is that the characteristic curve of the zener diode is inverted. It is shown inverted to emphasise that the zener diode is operated with reverse bias the term reverse bias is explained in detail in Unit 4. These terminals are called emitter. When connected in the amplifier circuit.

This current gets divided into two parallel branches of the load impedance ZL see Fig. If the zener diode were not there. Strictly speaking. It ensures safe operation of the zener diode. The terminal voltage VT remains constant at Vz whatever be the current flowing through the zener diode.

But now. The current through the 40 kQ impedance is varies. For the time being. This means that the current through the zener diode flows in a direction opposite to that of the arrow in its symbol. In this equivalent circuit. The resistance R 2 is put in the circuit so as to limit the current through the zener diode.

It is a three-terminal device. Name two sources of electrical power. How can you convert one representation to the other? Transistor Fig. Justify your answer ill about three lilies. The equivalent representation of the transistor as shown in Fig.. A practical source can be represented either as a voltage source or as a current source..

Draw the symbolic representation of a practical current source. Explaift the reason for putting an impedance ill this symbolic representation.. Explaift the condition under which a practical voltage source is considered to be good voltage source. This resistance has high value typically. State an application of an electronic device whose characteristics are similar to that of an ideal voltage source.

The ac behaviour of the transistor can be represented by the circuit shown in Fig. Explain ill one or two lines its characteristics. Explaift the necessity of includiftg an impedance in the representation.

The value of the ac current source ic depends upon the input ac current ie. This resistance represents the source resistance when we look upon a transistor as a current source. Draw the symbol of an ideal current source..

Output I I: Draw the symbol of an ideal de voltage source.. Below are some iftcomplete statements. It is meant for the de operation of the transistor. Between its output terminals collector and base. Four alternatives are provided for each. Are they voltage sources or current sources?

Such characteristics are very similar to the characteristics of a current source as shown in Fig. Name an electronic device which has characteristics similar to that of an ideal current source. The current i can be calculated from the input circuit. The value of the current source in ac equivalent of the transistor is lOOi. Draw the symbolic representation of a practical ac voltage source.

Name at least one electronic device whose characteristics are very close to that of an ideal voltage source.

The resistance R 0 represents static de output resistance. I 2kQ Vo 5. If the load impedance is doubled. In a practical voltage source. ICLiF 7. A device whose characteristics are very close to that of an ideal voltage source is a a silicon signal diode b transistor in common-base mode c field-effect transistor d zener diode 5. The current flowing through the zener diode in Fig.

An ideal current source has low internal resistance. An ideal current source has infinite internal resistance. An ideal current source is one whose internal resistance is a very high b very low c zero d infinite 3. A constant current source supplies a current of mA to a load of 1 kQ. A resistance is connected to a practical source. An ideal voltage source is one which has a very high internal resistance b very low internal resistance c zero internal resistance d infinite internal resistance 2.

A practical current source has low internal resistance. When the load is changed to Q. For finding the current through this resistance. An ideal voltage source has zero internal resistance. Figure 0. The constant voltage available across the zener diode is 5 V.

An ideal voltage source of 12 V provides a current of mA to a load. The current flowing through the 1-kQ load is Current and Voltage Sources 8. The output side of a transistor connected in common-base mode should be treated as a constant voltage source. Answers 'f Cc Fig. Below are some statements.

Solving an electrical circuit will give the same results whether the source is treated as voltage source or as current source. A device whose characteristics are very.

A zener diode has characteristics similar to that of an ideal current source. A practical voltage source has very high internal resistance. An ideal voltage source has low internal resistance. Indicate against each. The voltage gain of an amplifier is defined as the ratio of its output voltage to its input voltage.. Calculate the voltage v 0 in Fig. Figure T.

Identify the source impedance Zs. Convert it into an equivalent voltage source. A Calculate the voltage available between the points A and B in the two situations represented in Fig. Figure T.. Tutorial Sheet I [Ans. State which situation represents a better voltage source condition. Convert it into an equivalent current source. Assume that the zener diodes have ideal voltage-source characteristics. An electronic amplifier is used to amplify electrical signals. Calculate the current through the kQ resistor shown in Fig.

I rt 15 kQ "Electronic aids. If one looks inside any electronic equipment.

Reality is no longer going to be the stuff out there. This means the diode is conducting and the current is flowing in the circuit. To understand the operation of these devices and many more that are likely to come in future. The conductivity of the semiconductor can also be controlled by controlling the amount of impurity added to it. Another important component is the transistor. In this respect.

These coverings provide protection against short circuits and also against electrical-shock hazards. The diode makes it possible to convert ac into de. It is for this reason that these materials are classified as semiconductors. Insulating materials are bad conductors of electricity. Conducting materials are good conductors of electricity. Electronic amplifier circuits are used to amplify signals and thus control the operations of automatic door-openers, lighting systems, power systems and safety devices, etc.

Electronic circuits are used to produce stroboscopic lights of any desired frequency.

When this is directed on a fast rotating object, it can be made to appear stationary or to be in slow motion by adjusting the frequency of light. This principle makes it possible to study the movement of various parts of a machine under normal running conditions. Electronic computers, also called 'electronic brains', are used for automatic record keeping and solving of complicated problems.

Electronically controlled systems, using suitable timers, are used for heating and welding in the industry. Even the power stations, which generate thousands of megawatts of electricity are controlled by tiny electronic devices and circuits.

Some of the instruments which have been in use are: 1. X-rays, for taking pictures of internal bone structures and also for treatment of some diseases.

Electrocardiographs ECG , to find the condition of the heart of a patient. Short-wave diathermy units, for healing sprains and fractures. Oscillographs for studying muscle action. The use of electronics in medical science has expanded so enormously as to start a new branch of study, called 'bioelectronics'.

Electronics is proving useful in saving mankind from a lot of suffering and pain. It is only due to electronic instruments that an all-round development in every walk of life has been possible. DVM, cathode-ray oscilloscopes, frequency counters, signal generators, pH-meters, strain-gauges, etc. Friend Reviews. To see what your friends thought of this book, please sign up.

To ask other readers questions about Basic Electronics and Linear Circuits , please sign up. Be the first to ask a question about Basic Electronics and Linear Circuits. Lists with This Book. This book is not yet featured on Listopia. Community Reviews. Showing Rating details. Sort order. Feb 17, Durgesh Kaushal rated it really liked it. This was exiting book. Feb 27, Khushdil Virdi added it. Feb 05, Gbjk Nmfvc marked it as to-read. Dec 04, Raj Rahi rated it it was amazing.

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Oct 23, Raubinsh Arya is currently reading it. Feb 20, Palika Charitha rated it really liked it. Oct 26, Ravikumar Sangani added it.It then drifts towards the of high resistivity space charge or depletion region sandwiched inbetween two junction. For silicon, the core will contain 14 protons but only 10 electrons. We have seen that an intrinsic semiconductor behaves as an insulator at absolute zero because all the electrons are bound to the atoms.

Without the aid of these comp01wnts a transistor can. The open-circuit voltage across terminals A and B. Explain why the discrete energy levels of an isolated atom split into a band of immobile ions. When a voltage source supplies power to a load.

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