KELSOS SHRUG BOOK PDF

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Kelso's Shrug Book - Download as PDF File .pdf), Text File .txt) or read online. strength training. Kelso's Shrug Book [Paul Kelso] on etgabentisttus.cf *FREE* shipping on qualifying offers. In the only training book of its kind, Paul Kelso expands the shrug. Read online or download ebook Kelso's Shrug Book pdf, In the only training book of its kind, Paul Kelso expands the “shrug principle” with dozens of variations.


Kelsos Shrug Book Pdf

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Shrug Variations by Paul Kelso. January – Part One. Over a year ago, I promised Peary Rader an article about the Kelso Shrug. Kelso's Shrug Book by Paul Kelso pdf eBook. God I have told me if you don't mean. He continued turning on both while deadlifting with a part. A dull eyed and . I was rereading Paul's book and a question occurred to me. Basically I think this I could see that for the pulling type shrugs Kelso advocates.

I will leave any discussion of various shrugs for medical purposes to other. Variations of these m o v e m e n t s with pre-set traps are s o m e times called Starr S h r u g s after the well-known lifter and writer Bill Starr.

T h e n u m b e r of shrugs possible is limited only by your imagination and the variety of e q u i p m e n t available. T h e weight is held in m a x contraction position for a count three to four counts s e e m to work well or as long as possible before the bar is lowered u n d e r control to the rack pins.

A w o r d of warning: T h e beauty of these variations is that y o u can target a specific m u s c l e or area and then zero in on it by adjusting your angle of attack and mentally concentrating the contraction right w h e r e you want it. Masatoshi Kashikura. Drawing from the Shrug Course. Arms are straight. I would still vote for the clean and jerk as a fine indicator of c o m b i n e d strength and athletic ability.

Less has b e e n written about the initial drive off the chest than any other stage of the lift. At least two schools of thought about the role of the s h o u l d e r girdle in b e n c h pressing are current in the g y m s.

Watching top lifters can be revealing. S o m e weightlifters and others put d o w n powerlifting. O n e is the m o r e traditional style familiar to m o s t trainees. Japan's benchers w o n both the m e n and w o m e n ' s team b e n c h press titles at the world meet in and exemplify the u s e of e x t r e m e arches in both directions. Let's get to bench press training and styles and discuss the "Lateral A r c h " and the concept of the "Shrug Hold. N o t only is there pectoral contraction and a r m drive.

M o s t would say a r m drive or explosion in order to gain e n o u g h height to allow the e l b o w s to rotate into position if that is the technique used to begin the follow-through to lockout. M a n y of the best do use this technique. I do not pretend to be an authority on b e n c h technique. S o m e do it on purpose. E v e r y b o d y has seen the e x t r e m e b o w or bridge that m a n y lifters achieve in his or her lower back as they lie lengthwise on the bench.

T h e b a r can be raised several inches with this spread and roll technique alone. Collin is an e x a m ple of this style. S p r i n g Set S h r u g and even the Lat Shrug can develop this spread and thrust. N o t all lifters do this lat flare or roll. Powerlifting great R i c k e y D a l e Crain and others have pointed out that the pectorals c o m e into major play first in the bench press—or should —followed by anterior deltoids and triceps.

On the other hand. This raises the high point on the chest w h e r e the bar touches w h e n lowered.

R h o d e s and I traded emails throughout and he e x p e r i m e n t e d in his training with the shrug variations we discussed to strengthen his lateral arch. I was b u r n e d out on training questions. R h o d e s states that he never uses the shoulder roll during the execution of the lift until he receives the finishing rack c o m m a n d. He tried half a dozen or m o r e m o v e m e n t s but settled on the following: I switched to literary fiction. He believes it is w r o n g to "shrug" the bar up during the completion of the press and that the shoulders should be kept in "the u t m o s t rearward rotation possible t h r o u g h o u t " the b e n c h press m o v e m e n t.

That's 2 2 5. T h e tension created is translated through the a r m s to the u p p e r b a c k and provides h i m with stored "extra e n e r g y " w h e n he starts the bar back up. According to R h o d e s.

How do we do that? W h a t shrug training is possible to m a x i m i z e lateral arch effectiveness and to m a i n t a i n that pinched-together rear position? I had w o r k e d on nothing but my Texas b o o k after my last training articles w e r e published in He rotates his scapulae b a c k into the lateral arch position. He uses five to six lb plates on the plate h o l d e r for t w o sets of six reps.

Collin puts about 2 4 0 lbs on each side and leans b a c k slightly. He warns against translating the m o v e m e n t of the B e n c h Shrug into the actual b e n c h lift.

At Collin's prodding questions. I hit the g y m and b e g a n tinkering with shrug techn i q u e s to apply to this " n e w " trend in benching. T h e r e is no crossover motion on these, of course. T w o sets of eight with a pair of pounders, done one arm at a time. He also does Bench Shrugs, but m o r e for stability than for raw strength, using about 5 0 0 lbs.

All the shrugs are d o n e on his b e n c h support-work day Friday except for the Bench Shrug, which is d o n e on his regular b e n c h day Monday. Collin, 34 as of this writing, widely k n o w n on Internet forums as "Pooh-Bear," improved his bench by 20 kilograms 44 pounds in one year on shrug variations. That is excellent progress for a veteran lifter in a drug-tested organization.

He placed second in the 2 4 2 lb. Collin just missed a 2 8 3 kg lbs 4th attempt going for the world record. By the time you read this, I bet he'll have m a d e it. Summing up, then, it would appear that the B e n c h Shrug would be of m o r e use to "flare" or "roll" technique benchers, as it is similar to part of the actual lift. It m a y be used by lifters using the "lateral a r c h " as a strength and stability builder, but it should not be incorporated into that pressing style.

T h i s is not an easy m o v e m e n t to learn for most people and I reco m m e n d — n a y , insist—that the reader start out light on the overhead lat pulldown m a c h i n e. Lean slightly b a c k and pull toward the collarbones without bending the arms. I have long arms. T h i s is another e x a m p l e of a shrug m o v e m e n t that has not been taken to its full potential by weight trainers.

Or, like R h o d e s , he leans slightly to the rear, emulating the position taken on the b e n c h during a competition lift w h e n establishing a Lateral Arch, and shrugs the scapulae together without bending the arms.

T h e contraction is held for three or four counts. T h e weights are then returned to the starting position u n d e r control rather than just m o r e or less released.

Please read chapter two for m o r e on this. I believe this m o v e m e n t , coupled with holds, will prove to be a winner.

T h i s can be applied in any contraction with any shrug variation. H o l d the contraction for an extra count—four m a y be o p t i m u m — before releasing into the negative part of the m o v e m e n t. This next statement is as unscientific as it can be, but I suspect these holds reach deep-seated m u s c l e fibers that m a y not be completely w o r k e d in " n o r m a l " full-range exercise motions.

Take the position on the bench. H a n d spacing should be the s a m e as regularly used for benching, or p e r h a p s a finger width or two closer together. L o w e r the bar with straight a r m s toward y o u r chest by dropping the shoulders d o w n toward the bench and crunching the shoulder blades scapulae together.

Force the b a r u p w a r d by spreading the scapulae out to the sides like a lat spread while raising the shoulders off the bench. U s e pectoral contraction to roll the shoulders up and in toward the sternum. T h e bar will travel only three or. N o t only will your initial drive be improved by raising the bar this w a y but control w h e n lowering the bar to begin the b e n c h press will increase.

Do not use a bench shirt with this exercise. You m a y find yourself having to readjust it after every rep. Also, there is no reason to do a big lower back arch or bridge with this m o v e m e n t. It would restrict the spread and contraction. It's performed with straight arms and can easily m o v e off line. P o w e r racks work great w h e n lifting alone.

Just set the pins slightly b e l o w the point of bar travel with scapulae fully retracted together b a c k toward the bench , lock out, and begin. Start out with a weight that can be benched 8 to 10 reps until you have learned the m o v e m e n t and then add p o u n d a g e over time. Yes, y o u could do a "lockout shrug" by setting the pins a notch or so higher; that would m e a n starting the m o v e m e n t with the scapulae slightly spread.

It's c o m m o n for a lifter to eventually h a n d l e several reps in the bench shrug with the s a m e weight as his best single bench press, or even m o r e.

I am talking about doing these without a b e n c h shirt and see no reason to use one. In fact a shirt m a y m a k e the bar difficult to reposition at the start of each rep. K e n Leistner reported g o o d results similar to those I m e n t i o n e d in his publication, The Steel Tip, February , w h e r e he suggested adding two sets of b e n c h shrugs at the end of a bench workout.

I concur. This had two causes: However, if you do not use the "roll" and opt for the "lateral arch," this movement will still greatly strengthen the shoulder girdle for whatever purpose. It's possible to do this m o v e on incline or decline b e n c h e s but it's trickier to control and m o r e limited in range.

O l y m p i c lifters m a y want to try it on the incline as a support m o v e for the clean and jerk. Weightlifters h a v e been using scapular rotation as an exercise with the bar locked out overhead since the early s, according to the late C h e s t e r Teegarden. L o w e r i n g and raising the bar in this m a n n e r greatly strengthens the shoulder girdle, but I advise starting light and working up. I'd advise caution using a snatch grip overhead, but lifters h a v e d o n e it that way for decades and m a n y still do.

H e a v y loads with an extra w i d e grip can cause injury to the shoulder. C l o s e grips are worth experimenting with, as is the Shrug D i p. T h e lifter a s s u m e s the position for dips but raises and lowers the body on straight a r m s by allowing the shoulders to rise toward the ears and then lifting the b o d y forcing the shoulders d o w n using pectoral, latissimus, and serratus contractions.

T h e use of a heavily loaded weight belt is a m u s t if Shrug D i p s are intended as an assistance exercise for the b e n c h press. These shots demonstrate a bench position with no lateral arch top and then with full scapular pinch together bottom.

Bottom is also the retracted position during the Bench Shrug. Lateral Arch. Bench angles may be adjusted for different purposes. This varies d e p e n d i n g on the size and proportions of the lifter. T h e first. T h e s e lifts are different b u t h a v e similar stages. At this point I'd like to ask three questions: T h e lower the angle of the bench.

The Kelso Shrug System: - PDF free download eBook

Mentally focus the contraction on a spot b e t w e e n the shoulder blades. W h y are deadlifters not using their competition. Here's w h a t I r e c o m m e n d in answer to the three questions above: W h y do so m a n y lifters practice only the standing shrug w h e n the u p p e r b o d y in the first stage mentioned above is angled at 35 to 40 degrees in relationship to the floor and 55 to 65 in the s e c o n d?

C r u n c h the scapulae together. H a v e your training partners hand up the bar. W h y do m a n y O l y m p i c lifters use only a clean-width grip in shrug training w h e n the w i d e grip used in snatching c a u s e s a different direction of pull force during contraction of the m u s c l e s involved? Do not misunderstand. T h i s usually h a p p e n s too fast for the untrained eye to follow.

In the lower stages of the three lifts. It's a specific m o v e m e n t within the clean and jerk or deadlift and is absolutely required in g y m training so that m a x i m u m height m a y be obtained. Lie face d o w n on a heavy-duty adjustable incline b e n c h set at 35 to 45 degrees. I approve.

In the deadlift. I am not leading a crusade against the standing shrug. A freestanding b e n c h is best. D o n ' t contract up toward the ears. This angle should match the angle of the spine in relation to the floor during the initial drive of the pull. A few sets of lat pulls and shrugs are tacked on at the end. B e c a u s e of the angle of the arms during the snatch.

T h i s setting aids the second stage of the lifts as the lifter drives toward the vertical. Rules vary on this b e t w e e n federations. W i d e grip is the way it's d o n e during the snatch itself.

I agree. G e t a full stretch every rep. T h e scapulae m o v e toward each other as well as up. S o m e powerlifting federations n o w require only that the lifter stand erect. O l y m p i c lifters should practice snatch grip shrugs at several angles as well as with the clean width grip. At least twothirds of those lifts do not seriously challenge the lifter's ability to get his shoulders b a c k. F r o m what I read of top deadlifters' published routines.

T h e standing shrugs are usually pulled up and then back. T h i s not a g o o d practice for powerlifters as it m a y develop the bad habit of causing the bar to drop at the c o m pletion of the lift and earn a red light.

T h e r e is a trend in the last few years not to pull b a c k to the rear w h e n doing the standing shrug as an assistance exercise.

Introduction

W h y not practice shrugs on a b e n c h using the two angles a b o v e and w o r k all the muscles of the u p p e r back involved in d r a w i n g the shoulders to the rear? Lean-forward shrugs will increase all lifters' ability to "set" their shoulders at the b e g i n n i n g of the lifts and k e e p the u p p e r back straight and the head up throughout. He called them "retractors. M a n y a world title has been won by that margin.

Not much. W h e n you clasp your forefinger over the nail for the h o o k grip. B a c k in the days w h e n the ' 5 5 C h e v y was the hottest car in A m e r i c a and I was trying to switch my style from splitting to squatting with the snatch lift.

I suggest using an incline b e n c h or s o m e other support so that greater weights m a y be used and m o r e specific m u s c l e groups targeted. I w o u l d be remiss if I did not point out that m a n y top deadlifters do not regularly practice shrugs. A Little Trick: This next has nothing to do with shrugs or traps but I'm going to shoehorn it in.

My training diary s h o w s a 55 lb gain in my DL after three m o n t h s of practicing these m o v e m e n t s at different angles the first time I tried them seriously.

We figured this trick was worth five additional p o u n d s on a lift. If using the regular thumb-over-finger grip. Y o u m i g h t practice the over-under competition deadlift grip regularly with the lean-forward shrugs for two reasons. Rising powerlifter Josh B r y a n t reported as of J a n u a r y 2 0 0 2 to h a v e d o n e lbs x 5 reps in the standing shrug and a hold off the rack with !

He was twenty years old at the time and w e i g h e d around 3 0 0 pounds. Truly prodigious p o u n d a g e s are possible. M a n y lifters are capable of handling h u g e weights for sets and reps with shrug m o v e m e n t s. S o m e set their traps in a contracted u p w a r d position before starting the pull and try to hold that position throughout the rep.

T h e s e shrugs will help keep the bar close to the b o d y which is very important. Six to eight reps should be sufficient. T h e back shrugs I described will help keep the b a c k straight and the h e a d up during the squat. This will increase squatting ability as the lifter gains shoulder girdle stability. T h i s was the first shrug other than the basic standing m o v e m e n t I ever attempted.

T h e H i s e shrug and high-rep breathing squats h a v e been the k e y to m a n y bulk and p o w e r courses since the s. W h a t kind of shrug variation could help the squat? I k n o w of no shrug that can build hip and thigh strength. Keith W a s s u n g told me in an email in February 2 0 0 0 that he d o e s this during a partial deadlift from his knees! Do not use a powerlifter stance. U n l i k e the breathing style H i s e Shrug described in chapter two.

This m o v e m e n t will get n e w trainees past the stage of the b a r hurting the shoulders. O l y m p i c lifters will want to try snatch and clean grip shrugs at the positions discussed: B u t for competition training. O b v i o u s l y I'm talking about the Hise Shrug see chapter t w o.

B r e a t h e in and shrug up toward the ears with trap and scapular action. Texas-Style book from Iron M i n d Enterprises. The H. Articles about my work. Articles plagiarizing my work and signed by other writers have appeared in several of the " b e t t e r " publications in the g a m e.

K e n Leistner's The Steel Tip. I take it as a compliment! As a general rule. A p p e n d i x II is a list of s o m e of the articles I've written on the subjects in this b o o k. I w o u l d do them after the regular exercise they resemble most. If you wish to do m o r e reading about shrugs. Please use these shrug variations as an adjunct to your regular training. By developing the Gerard Trap Bar. A t first glance.

In the m i d s. I use the phrase "trap bar" generically to describe all such bars as a class. W h i l e we are discussing biomechanics.

T h e theory is simple: He had lower b a c k problems and had b e e n searching for a w a y to train the deadlift without aggravating his condition. In short. T h i s reduces lower back stress and shearing forces on the spine and knees.

This is simply not true. Such n o n s e n s e only confuses the n e w trainees. Studies conducted by Gerard and others suggest the reduction in stress to the lower back varies from 1 4. Gerard's first ad for his bar. I'd add that the trainee should also be careful of badly designed leg extension machines. With the iron closer to the b o d y and m o v i n g vertically parallel to the spine without body drag.

S o m e think that m a c h i n e s provide the stability needed. K e n Leistner and m y s e l f pushed for deadlifts. It will be back. I a s s u m e this would depend on the proportions and leverages of the lifter plus the characteristics. In addition to doing leg. K n e e shearing forces are reduced as well. He has used all the "trap b a r " m o v e m e n t s described here in his o w n training.

B u t I digress. T h e response of the targeted m u s c l e g r o u p s was just terrific! T h e p a l m s facing feature of the bar provides the desired angle for m a x i m u m stretch and contraction while the braced b a r delivers stability. Let's get back to w h a t these types of bars can do for the trainee.

Al discovered that the bar could be applied to other exercises. T h e first thing I did w h e n I got my bar was load up for the bent over or Lat Shrug for the m i d d l e and lower trapezius area and lats. I wrote them. Regular standing trap bar shrugs can be d o n e straight up toward the ears without dragging the bar up the body.

M o s t advanced bodybuilders need m o r e weight than that for optimal development. A lot of effort is bled off into the lats and other torso m u s c l e s as the trainee tries to stabilize the weights and keep them "in the g r o o v e. T h e best way to perform any bent over shrug variation is face-down on a high r o w ing b e n c h or on an incline b e n c h set a low angle. M a n y top powerlifters can rep shrug m o r e than they can deadlift.

T h e y better be able to. I believe the finest is the deadlift. Shrugs aside. I k n o w m a n y experienced weight c o a c h e s hold that d u m b b e l l s are m o r e effective than a straight bar for shrugging.

B e c a u s e the trainee must get low to begin. This takes the lower back and legs out of the exercise and isolates the m u s c l e s targeted. It is s o m e t i m e s difficult to get the bells into position without a spotter. In the bent over position. With a "trap bar. But there are several problems with dumbbells: So h o w can a trainee. A n d top O l y m p i c lifters can often shrug m o r e than they can clean. T h e leg lift. T h e original bar could be loaded to pounds. Lifters w h o think they need m o r e squat training m i g h t want to set up a three or four day p r o g r a m.

N o w let's talk about training for c o m p e t i t i o n powerlifting using Al Gerard's system. Al G e r a r d stayed with his trap bar training for about three or four m o r e w e e k s and then converted to a full cycle of about eight w e e k s to p e a k out at the contest he'd been shooting at all along.

After three weeks. Here's h o w I would set it up: My knees quit hurting and I a d d e d forty p o u n d s to my deadlift. At this time I w o u l d drop the upright r o w i n g and replace it with Lat S h r u g s on an incline b e n c h set at degrees. After a few m o n t h s on this program.

This insures greater range of m o v e m e n t in both exercises and m u c h m o r e thigh involvement in the leglift. See chapters two and three for the B e n c h Shrug. I gradually shifted to a m o r e specific powerlifting routine and then into a full p o w e r c y c l e. T h i s reduces lower back stress while maintaining hip and thigh power. But the key function of the trapezius and other scapular retrac: Off blocks after weeks.

Peaking Cycle T h e final eight weeks of the cycle is left up to the individual lifter to use a p r o g r a m he has found to be most successful in the past. T h a t is w h y I practice several sets face-down on an incline b e n c h set at 35 degrees and then several sets with it set at 55 degrees.

T h e s e correspond to my body position during the initial pull and secondary pull of the lift as the b o d y drives to the vertical. T h e standing shrug is excellent for the upper trap. N o w get this! I will drop standing shrugs from the routine at this time and use only " K e l s o " or Lat shrugs on an incline bench set at various angles. Deadlifts on blocks. Your ankles should line up just b e h i n d the yokes that hold the plates.

K e e p the b a c k as straight as possible. As y o u r leverages are different with the trap bar. After standing erect. Do not roll back during powerlifting training. L o o k s like you are doing dips with the trap bar in your h a n d s or p e r h a p s negative dips.

T h e c h a n g e in leverage provides advantages not found with straight bars. Start in the low position. S o m e m a k e s of bars n o w h a v e extension attachments so the bar can be used in a rack. If you can't get the bar into position this way. Return to the sag position after every rep. I grab the h a n d l e s just forward of center so that the bar tips slightly to the rear. You can place the bar on freestanding squat racks or perhaps inside a p o w e r rack.

G r a b the handles. Stand the bar up on the point of the bent c r o o k of the bar nearest you. Lean forward and put your head and shoulders into the bar so that the top crook h o o k s behind your neck across the shoulders. T h e outer deltoid will be strongly affected. This enables me to press straight up with very little lean back.

K e e p i n g the arms straight. Select a weight that can be handled in rowing for eight reps. L o w e r the bar for a full stretch and repeat.

This would also be of aid in training the squat. If no comfortable w a y can be found. S e e m o r e on this in chapters one.

S o m e m a y find it difficult to set up for this exercise. You can u s e the trap bar if you can get it into position. You m a y wish to use it after your b e n c h presses. W h e n practiced with the "pushing your feet through the floor" technique. If not the bar will tip. Your grip should be in the center of the handles. I expect to see m o r e deadlift records b r o k e n as word gets out about the trap bar.

More general basic courses using the "trap bar" are listed in Appendix I. Your ankles should line up just behind the yokes that hold the weights. U s e lighter weights until you are familiar with the feel of the trap bar. U s e good form at all times. It b e c o m e s second nature as you go along. Stand inside the bar with feet about shoulder width apart. Al Gerard. Deadlift on block. Places more emphasis on quads and lower back. Deadlift or Leglift with Trap Bar.

Hiro has placed second at lbs. Excellent for deltoids. Good bulk movement. There is no body drag as with a straight bar. Highpull works deltoids. T h e following principles are d e s i g n e d to m a k e your chest wider and d e e p e r and spread your shoulders. T h a t title m a y be misleading. T h e y are arranged h e r e in an order that will give m a x i m u m results.

W h a t follows is a presentation of an older training principle that m a n y say is n o w outdated and which is out of favor in s o m e quarters. T h e y train to e n h a n c e their ability in other sports or for their health. T h e exercises are for the m o s t part not secret or new. Getting wider across and thicker front to back by e x p a n d i n g the rib c a g e will allow for m o r e m u s c u l a r weight to be carried.

It's a great p r o g r a m for beginners and first year m e n to u s e in stimulating overall g r o w t h and building a basic foundation for the future. I copyrighted the " B o n e Structure and G r o w t h C o u r s e " in shorter form than this chapter.

M a n y want to i m p r o v e their ability to do grip tricks to impress friends and win b a r r o o m bets. Critics of these m e t h o d s often state that they can only be effective for trainees under twenty three or so years old.

It's not about bones. Your overall conditioning and e n d u r a n c e will improve. For the routine to work best. Your strength leverage should improve. See chapter three for ideas on that. E x p a n s i o n of the rib cage and will accomplish several things for you. I'd get a call to perform in a few weeks. I do not claim any scientific expertise. Very young trainees might achieve s o m e lengthening. Your appearance and posture will improve. I would say that o n e and a half to three inches of chest gain can be expected in that first time period.

A larger frame allows for m o r e m u s c u l a r weight to be gained. I w a s a concert folksinger for m a n y years. A by-product for b e n c h press fanatics is that a larger rib cage and higher stern u m will shorten the lifter's stroke.

The Kelso Shrug System: - PDF free download eBook

Scientists are generally wary of g y m w i s d o m. Yet the literature of training contains m a n y stories of older m e n w h o claim success or at least satisfaction with this type of training.

Results vary from person to person. The WeighTrainer. Hise wrote fifty or m o r e years ago that the goal of rib expansion exercises is to place e n o u g h stretch on the costal cartilages to activate d o r m a n t m e s e n c h y m a l cells that exist in the adult hyaline cartilage so that they differentiate into adult cells.

His r e m a r k s were like m a n y of the nay-sayers on this subject. I think I just wrote a n e w "Kelso's Law. Now think about this: But the box squat has c o m e b a c k in the last five years or so and is again widely practiced by powerlifters. For instance. I've b e e n to two hundred-plus weightlifting and powerlifting contests and have yet to see a lifter walk out on to the platform carrying a two-by-four.

T h e complaint is that doing this m a y put excess strain on the knees and set the lifter up for injury. T h e s e things c o m e and go in weight training. I have been in g y m s w h e r e the instructors will not permit u s e of a board or plate u n d e r the heels. If a m u s c l e or b o d y part can be triggered voluntarily. He pretty m u c h scoffed at the idea of costal cartilage stretching or g r o w t h and even the existence of "inspiratory m u s c l e s " which he claimed would be involuntary m u s c l e s in any case.

My shirts b e c a m e tighter without weight gain. If you squat completely straight up and d o w n — a l l o w i n g y o u r knees to get far ahead out over y o u r toes—then you are transferring stress to y o u r knees. If you break at the hips first and sit b a c k into the squat. For a trainee w h o has had a very long layoff. B u t while learning to squat and developing flexibility along with the torso and shoulder girdle strength to support larger weights. If an older person has never trained before.

M a n y weightlifters and powerlifters still insert a heel lift into their shoes. Several manufacturers m a k e shoes specifically for weightlifting and powerlifting. S e e chapter five for an explanation of the advantages. T h e rules of the International Powerlifting Federation state that no part of the underside of the shoe m a y be higher than five centimeters.

Heel height is an individual thing. In fact and I am a long lanky type genetically I did not put on major u p p e r b o d y m a s s until I included a lot of closer-than-normal hand spacing in my pressing and pulling m o v e m e n t s. Fred Hatfield. To end this. T w o inches is 5. A p o w erlifer using a very w i d e stance probably would not benefit m u c h from a high heel. I'd c h o o s e a lighter weight shoe. The exercise is perfectly safe. O n e overlooked factor: The stuff about squatting on raised heels being dangerous is tossed out by people who do not know how to do a proper squat.

O t h e r s insist that no heel is best and squat in no-heel basketball shoes. B u t this won't work for everybody. I believe that is especially true with long-armed individuals.

Training for a powerlifting meet is another matter. Be careful. I'd say discard the board as soon as possible and get s o m e good shoes with a firm heel that suits you. It's a lot safer and more productive to do a heels raised OL squat than to do the flat-footed "parallel" gut-it-up abominations that most guys do. That's o n e reason I like the trap bar: A widely circulated story is that Dr.

Note the narrow. I m a d e up for this by doing as m a n y squat reps as possible before d u m p i n g the bar off backwards onto the lawn.

J o e was very short 5 ' 4 " and prodigiously muscular. My first w o r k o u t took place in the back yard of a pro wrestler n a m e d J o e Cassius. J o e later b e c a m e a famous psychologist and appeared on national TV talk shows.

A friend o n c e suggested that if he ever n e e d e d work he could paint himself red. This set my father off swearing w h e n the lawn m o w e r wheels got.

I've got to throw this o n e in. Weighed about 2 1 5. I mail ordered a barbell and set up in my garage. The widened chest and raised sternum are plainly visible.

I had no squat rack or flat bench. See text for his program. The author at 18 years 3 months. My squat weight was limited to whatever I could clean and j e r k and shoulder. Paul's training log said he weighted in this shot. I "incorrectly" used a fairly w i d e grip for bent over rowing and behind the neck presses.

Put fruit on your cereal. Unless you are over weight in which case you should use a c o m m o n sense diet without fads. I did not concentrate on t-shirt muscles. I was using a training m e t h o d that m a n y m e n have used over the years. With that in mind. B o b Hoffman and others. You can find m o r e information on this type of training in Randall Strossen's b o o k Super Squats.

B u t I'm talking about ribcage expansion as well as weight gain here. I had no workout partner to help with b e n c h i n g b e c a u s e weight training was frowned on in those days.

T h i s is an easy way to keep track of your progress and m a k e s interesting reading thirty years later. It usually features a single set of squats for twenty reps with forced breathing see b e l o w. I could not have been doing any better exercise for a lanky. My b e n c h work was limited to pullovers. Eat a. Eat vegetables every day w h e t h e r you like them or not. Today my chest size is 4 8. High school c o a c h e s taught that weights would m a k e you " m u s c l e b o u n d " a term that has no medical basis and would ruin your heart.

I k n o w things have c h a n g e d a lot since the early fifties. In five years I increased my chest size seven inches before regularly including the b e n c h press in my program. U s e a metal tape if possible. I had to m o w the yard for years.

J o e H i s e is famous for using them and behind neck presses to achieve h u g e weight gains. Rader Chest Pulls. Do take a vitamin-mineral supplement. You're probablv thinking that this a strange course b e c a u s e there are no b e n c h presses. Following is your suggested list of exercises. Light pullovers or D u m b b e l l flies.

I'll explain them step-by-step: Alternate sets with: Stay off the soft drinks and bakery stuff for a while. Stretching and Trunk Twists. Breathing Stiff-Leg Deadlift. Breathing Squat. No m o r e than 2 sets each.

Rader C h e s t Pulls optional. T h e y don't fit the purposes of this course. T h e r e is a sound reason for omitting these and other exercises. You probably haven't been. T h e y have been training hard for years and are conditioned for it. After all. I believe the entire waist c o l u m n should be worked in order to better support h e a v y squats and overhead lifts.

L e a n i n g forward or b a c k slightly will stretch or contract different areas of your waistline and torso. It can. Don't b e n d your knees. Instead of "no pain. Do the s a m e thing bent over from the waist.

Pick a spot on the wall in front of you and keep y o u r face and hips aimed at this spot. Now for the method: I like to do s o m e squat-style snatching m o v e m e n t s with a light bar.

G e t loose first so you don't injure s o m e t h i n g later. Specialization and training for other goals can c o m e later. Twist in a deliberate fashion back and forth from the hips up.

B e g i n with about twenty counts each way. I don't care if Arnold. Don't neglect the shoulders. You can always cut back. Wonderful" are actually ghost written. This w o r k s the love handle area. Twist around far e n o u g h so that your h a n d s cross in front of that spot on the wall. You can do this from a regular or conventional deadlift motion as well. W h e n the bar passes above your knees on the w a y up.

For extra gains. It's all one s m o o t h m o v e m e n t until you get to the exhale-and-contract point. It's very important to use as m u c h weight as possible so that the contraction and chest lift will be m a x i m i z e d. T h e n lower the bar and repeat.

Your ribcage should be forced forward and u p w a r d at this point. T h e first several workouts will stretch and contract y o u r h a m s t r i n g s and spinal erectors and you'll feel it the next m o r n i n g. Do this several times each rep. H o l d the pressure for a count or two. If y o u ' v e never d o n e any toe-touching with weight before.

I'd suggest keeping your knees unlocked but stable. As you increase the weight over the weeks. To achieve m a x i m u m chest lift. As you loosen up. This exercise also strengthens your hamstrings. T h e important part of this m o v e m e n t is timing your breathing with the motion. K e e p your arms straight. Try 12 reps per set. Try it first with a w i d e foot stance which m e a n s you won't have to b e n d over so far. L o w e r yourself until y o u r thighs are at least parallel to the floor a line from k n e e to hip joint or just under.

Take a deep breath. L o w e r yourself into the squat while keeping y o u r b a c k and u p p e r body as straight as possible. T h e y hate squats. T h e y pinch a nerve in my back. Take the bar off the rack. U s e fairly wide h a n d spacing on the bar. Stay u n d e r control. Not a few trainees have started with an e m p t y bar.

Your heels should be directly under your armpits and not placed wider than y o u r shoulders. Your heredity. T h e r e is nothing in the world so creative as a trainee inventing excuses for not doing squats. Pick one. T h e r e is no getting around it. H e r e is h o w to do them for the goals of this course: C h o o s e a weight that you can squat for reps.

T h e very tall or long-legged m a y h a v e to go wider. I suggest starting with about one-third of your b o d y w e i g h t. If you don't have a squat rack then either build one. Half squats as often practiced and too often taught at c o m mercial g y m s won't get it.

T h e key is doing them properly for the purpose you have in m i n d. If y o u h a v e never trained at all.

If the bar hurts y o u r spine or shoulder bones. T h e truth is. T h e y aggravate my football injury. T h e bar m u s t be heavy enough so that the last 4 or 5 reps are serious. You'll soon get used to it. I'll refer to the sport of Weightlifting which includes the Snatch and the C l e a n and Jerk as " O l y m p i c " lifting b e c a u s e the general public often confuses weightlifting with weight training.

T h e variations in this b o o k allow these areas to be attacked specifically. As we go along. T h e first w o r k s the upper traps primarily and the rest of the trapezius secondarily.

Start moderate. Eigi Michibayashi. Tochigi state. Greg Leistner. G e t off line and the bar could end up in y o u r lap! Take your position for the b e n c h press. H a v e your training partner h a n d you the weight and tell him to stay on the j o b. No exercise in these pages is meant to be limited to any of the three groups. If the shoulder girdle can m o v e o n e way u n d e r resistance.

I'm not crazy. Be very careful of the balance. Spread y o u r lats and use y o u r pecs to get y o u r front deltoids m o v ing in towards each other. T h e bar should have dropped a few inches w h e n you c r u n c h e d the shoulder blades together.

R a i s e the bar up by spreading the scapulae apart and rolling the shoulders up and off the bench. The reader should check them all out and pick and c h o o s e the m o v e m e n t s that suit his purposes. B u t please. In the early days of my tinkering I often did this m o v e m e n t with d u m b bells and found they allowed a greater range of m o v e m e n t and pectoral contraction than with a bar.

I w o u l d agree that it w o r k s the serratus as a side benefit. Picture shows retracted position of Bench Shrug with scapulae pinched together at "bottom. H a v i n g seen it purloined and referred to as the "Serratus S h r u g " in an article in Muscular Development the early s. T h e shirt m a y shift during p e r f o r m a n c e and the lifter m a y h a v e trouble getting the shoulders back into starting position for the next rep.

Eventually you will be able to work up to h u g e weights for reps. Do not use an exaggerated wide grip. I described the shrug dip and L a n c e said he h a d learned it from B o b Gadja. Don't bend y o u r arms w h e n lowering your body. A m e r i c a favorite—straight-arm pull d o w n s on the overhead lat m a c h i n e — w i l l give you s o m e serratus in a hurry.

T h i s shrug dip. F e w do it today. You could a r g u e that the word should be "flare" as in "spread. R e a s s u m e the starting position and lower the b o d y by allowing your shoulders to rise up toward y o u r ears.

Model—Suguru Uetaki. By the way. Just don't use the arms. H a n e y is reported to have used the shrug row technique. By the w a y it is the direct negative of the standing shrug with d u m b b e l l s or a "trap bar. I consider the shrug dip to be a fine b o d y b u i l d i n g exercise since it also carves out the serratus and lats with delineation.

D o i n g these from a chinning bar is tough. T h e late Charles A. Leaning forward as if doing Gironda-style dips will put m o r e work on the pecs and c o m p l e m e n t the decline b e n c h press. T h a t last is hard to get with. T h e bar is shrugged straight up and lowered u n d e r control without rolling the shoulders or pulling to the rear.

See chapter four about overhead shrugs with a bar. Great effects can be had with w i d e hand spacing pulled up toward the ears or to the rear as if finishing a deadlift. This would be a negative of the above. You can get good results supporting your hands on one b e n c h or on b o x e s with your feet elevated as if doing triceps dips.

S e e chapter three. T h e n shrug or rotate the scapulae together. Do not use any forward or rear lateral motion. Take a straight-arm stance and a s s u m e a "crucifix" position. U s i n g the low pulley setting on the cable crossover m a c h i n e has other benefits. In the bent over. Do not bend the e l b o w s during the contraction or the return to the stretch. Press it out to arm's length on each side and then spread the scapulae to force the h a n d s further out and then resist the tension while allowing the scapulae to c o m e together in the middle of y o u r back.

R e m e m b e r that spring set exercise w h e r e you held the springs behind the back and pressed straight out to each side. Set the m a c h i n e on high pulley and stand or kneel in the middle. A l l o w a full stretch out to each side until it feels like your shoulder blades are going to pop loose.

D i g that old set out from the b o t t o m of the closet. A word of caution: That's right. You can find his story in m a n y books.

W i d e grip shrugs also carved out delineation b e t w e e n my traps and my sternocleid o m a s t o i d as seen from the front and thickened the muscles high on the b a c k of my neck. If you find any. Resting the forehead on b e n c h or table while in the bent over position will work. All the w i d e grip m o v e ments aid in widening the shoulder girdle. I h a v e a long neck and the w i d e grip m o v e m e n t and angle of attack affected the trap attachments high on the sides of my neck so that I n o w h a v e a long slope from neck to shoulder.

It works great but few g y m s still have those old plates. Try the w i d e grip. You'll feel w h a t I mean. T h o s e plates m a d e for the interesting gripping stunts you can n o w read about in Milo m a g a z i n e.

We would turn the inner 4 5 pound plates out the w r o n g way so we could grab the bar by the rims and then load on smaller plates. I h a v e never b e e n able to properly explain that in words. T h e r e is a triangulation from the hands to the focal point of contraction.

That causes the m u s c l e s to contract in a slightly different direction than usual. We would deadlift the bar by the rims and then shrug or powershrug it up a few inches. I never g r e w the blocky. Had the hubs. There m a y be a scientific basis for this: See chapter six. Start with a very m o d e r a t e squatting weight for a few w e e k s until you are used to it.

T h e s e "Rack Raises. Certain recent a c a d e m i c studies deny these effects. H i s e Shrugs. I suspect we don't yet fully understand w h a t is h a p p e n i n g w h e n these breathing m o v e m e n t s are performed. I suggest 15 or m o r e reps a set. T h e traps will benefit anyway. T h e n pile on the iron. T h e history trail of the Breathing S h r u g is a little foggy. T h e first is as J o e Hise applied it—as a breathing m o v e m e n t for the expansion of his rib c a g e and shoulder girdle.

Test for the position on y o u r shoulders that allows the m o s t height to be gained. A n o t h e r variation of the Hise Breathing Shrug can be d o n e on a standing calf machine. But thousands and thousands of trainees since Hise's time h a v e reported that they do work. You simply shoulder the bar like you are going to squat. T h e r e is an old controversy attached to these m o v e m e n t s. It has long b e e n widely believed that high-rep breathing squats. Heavier weights s e e m to stifle the r a n g e of the motion.

This m o v e m e n t will strengthen the entire shoulder girdle and e n h a n c e structural growth. Casey has also c o m e up with a true variation of the H i s e Breathing S h r u g by holding the bar across the anterior deltoids as if doing front squats. A basic use would be to perform conventional standing shrugs in a power rack.

T h e secret is in the breathing. As the bar nears the bott o m position. T h e purpose of the exercise is to raise and e x p a n d the ribcage and force the s t e r n u m up. See chapter four. Let's use a little c o m m o n sense here. In chapter four. Learn the m o v e before you pile the weights b a c k on. T h e S h r u g Dip is negative to the action of the conventional standing shrug. T h e second type of Hise Shrug is a good form of psychological training for h e a v y squatting and a t r e m e n d o u s p o w e r builder w h e n used with lower reps.

I discuss the Shrug Hold. B u t b o d y types and leverages differ from lifter to lifter. T h e r e are endless exercises to choose from for whatever purpose.

Hise Shrugs. Drive the air out of y o u r lungs and force your chest and sternum up! T h i s shrug can be used along with Rader Chest Pulls. I am finally getting around to it. E x h a l e as the bar is shrugged up. As I have written elsewhere. If any exercise or technique causes you discomfort or pain. Take your stance as if you are going to do regular standing shrugs. If they can't. O n e stands in front of it in a sort of deadlift stance and retracts the scapulae toward the rear as well as up.

T h e beauty of these variations is that y o u can target a specific m u s c l e or area and then zero in on it by adjusting your angle of attack and mentally concentrating the contraction right w h e r e you want it. A l m o s t any intermediate powerlifter or semi-experienced b o d y b u i l d e r can eventually work up to m o r e weight than the stack in a typical c o m m e r c i a l m a c h i n e has.

A w o r d of warning: I'm sure there are other " s h r u g s " I haven't yet learned about and that g u y s out there s o m e w h e r e are tinkering with n e w o n e s right now. Paul C h e k has written on these subjects.

Variations of these m o v e m e n t s with pre-set traps are s o m e times called Starr S h r u g s after the well-known lifter and writer Bill Starr. An exercise that is getting s o m e play as I write these c o m m e n t s July. T h e n u m b e r of shrugs possible is limited only by your imagination and the variety of e q u i p m e n t available. O t h e r lifters shrug the traps up into contracted position before starting the rep. I will leave any discussion of various shrugs for medical purposes to other.

This could be useful in correcting an i m b a l a n c e in d e v e l o p m e n t or strength by giving o n e side of the b a c k or specific area extra work. This provides c o n t i n u o u s tension —positive and negative. A lot of effort is e x p e n d e d maintaining the stance without being pulled forward. I have said before that all kinds of shrug variations are possible on any n u m b e r of m a c h i n e s or types of apparatus.

T h e weight is held in m a x contraction position for a count three to four counts s e e m to work well or as long as possible before the bar is lowered u n d e r control to the rack pins. Masatoshi Kashikura. Arms are straight. Drawing from the Shrug Course. S o m e weightlifters and others put d o w n powerlifting. Watching top lifters can be revealing. Let's get to bench press training and styles and discuss the "Lateral A r c h " and the concept of the "Shrug Hold. I would still vote for the clean and jerk as a fine indicator of c o m b i n e d strength and athletic ability.

Less has b e e n written about the initial drive off the chest than any other stage of the lift. At least two schools of thought about the role of the s h o u l d e r girdle in b e n c h pressing are current in the g y m s.

O n e is the m o r e traditional style familiar to m o s t trainees. Japan's benchers w o n both the m e n and w o m e n ' s team b e n c h press titles at the world meet in and exemplify the u s e of e x t r e m e arches in both directions. Collin is an e x a m ple of this style. T h e b a r can be raised several inches with this spread and roll technique alone.

Powerlifting great R i c k e y D a l e Crain and others have pointed out that the pectorals c o m e into major play first in the bench press—or should —followed by anterior deltoids and triceps. This raises the high point on the chest w h e r e the bar touches w h e n lowered.

S o m e do it on purpose. N o t all lifters do this lat flare or roll. M a n y of the best do use this technique. S p r i n g Set S h r u g and even the Lat Shrug can develop this spread and thrust. I do not pretend to be an authority on b e n c h technique. M o s t would say a r m drive or explosion in order to gain e n o u g h height to allow the e l b o w s to rotate into position if that is the technique used to begin the follow-through to lockout.

N o t only is there pectoral contraction and a r m drive. On the other hand. E v e r y b o d y has seen the e x t r e m e b o w or bridge that m a n y lifters achieve in his or her lower back as they lie lengthwise on the bench. Collin puts about 2 4 0 lbs on each side and leans b a c k slightly.

He warns against translating the m o v e m e n t of the B e n c h Shrug into the actual b e n c h lift. He rotates his scapulae b a c k into the lateral arch position. According to R h o d e s. T h e tension created is translated through the a r m s to the u p p e r b a c k and provides h i m with stored "extra e n e r g y " w h e n he starts the bar back up.

That's 2 2 5. I was b u r n e d out on training questions. He uses five to six lb plates on the plate h o l d e r for t w o sets of six reps.

He believes it is w r o n g to "shrug" the bar up during the completion of the press and that the shoulders should be kept in "the u t m o s t rearward rotation possible t h r o u g h o u t " the b e n c h press m o v e m e n t. I switched to literary fiction. He tried half a dozen or m o r e m o v e m e n t s but settled on the following: I hit the g y m and b e g a n tinkering with shrug techn i q u e s to apply to this " n e w " trend in benching.

How do we do that? W h a t shrug training is possible to m a x i m i z e lateral arch effectiveness and to m a i n t a i n that pinched-together rear position? I had w o r k e d on nothing but my Texas b o o k after my last training articles w e r e published in R h o d e s and I traded emails throughout and he e x p e r i m e n t e d in his training with the shrug variations we discussed to strengthen his lateral arch.

At Collin's prodding questions. R h o d e s states that he never uses the shoulder roll during the execution of the lift until he receives the finishing rack c o m m a n d. T h e r e is no crossover motion on these, of course. T w o sets of eight with a pair of pounders, done one arm at a time. He also does Bench Shrugs, but m o r e for stability than for raw strength, using about 5 0 0 lbs.

All the shrugs are d o n e on his b e n c h support-work day Friday except for the Bench Shrug, which is d o n e on his regular b e n c h day Monday. Collin, 34 as of this writing, widely k n o w n on Internet forums as "Pooh-Bear," improved his bench by 20 kilograms 44 pounds in one year on shrug variations. That is excellent progress for a veteran lifter in a drug-tested organization. He placed second in the 2 4 2 lb. Collin just missed a 2 8 3 kg lbs 4th attempt going for the world record.

By the time you read this, I bet he'll have m a d e it. Summing up, then, it would appear that the B e n c h Shrug would be of m o r e use to "flare" or "roll" technique benchers, as it is similar to part of the actual lift. It m a y be used by lifters using the "lateral a r c h " as a strength and stability builder, but it should not be incorporated into that pressing style. T h i s is not an easy m o v e m e n t to learn for most people and I reco m m e n d — n a y , insist—that the reader start out light on the overhead lat pulldown m a c h i n e.

Lean slightly b a c k and pull toward the collarbones without bending the arms. I have long arms. T h i s is another e x a m p l e of a shrug m o v e m e n t that has not been taken to its full potential by weight trainers. Or, like R h o d e s , he leans slightly to the rear, emulating the position taken on the b e n c h during a competition lift w h e n establishing a Lateral Arch, and shrugs the scapulae together without bending the arms.

T h e contraction is held for three or four counts. T h e weights are then returned to the starting position u n d e r control rather than just m o r e or less released. Please read chapter two for m o r e on this. I believe this m o v e m e n t , coupled with holds, will prove to be a winner. T h i s can be applied in any contraction with any shrug variation. H o l d the contraction for an extra count—four m a y be o p t i m u m — before releasing into the negative part of the m o v e m e n t.

This next statement is as unscientific as it can be, but I suspect these holds reach deep-seated m u s c l e fibers that m a y not be completely w o r k e d in " n o r m a l " full-range exercise motions. Take the position on the bench. H a n d spacing should be the s a m e as regularly used for benching, or p e r h a p s a finger width or two closer together. L o w e r the bar with straight a r m s toward y o u r chest by dropping the shoulders d o w n toward the bench and crunching the shoulder blades scapulae together.

Force the b a r u p w a r d by spreading the scapulae out to the sides like a lat spread while raising the shoulders off the bench. U s e pectoral contraction to roll the shoulders up and in toward the sternum. T h e bar will travel only three or. N o t only will your initial drive be improved by raising the bar this w a y but control w h e n lowering the bar to begin the b e n c h press will increase.

Do not use a bench shirt with this exercise. You m a y find yourself having to readjust it after every rep. Also, there is no reason to do a big lower back arch or bridge with this m o v e m e n t. It would restrict the spread and contraction. It's performed with straight arms and can easily m o v e off line. P o w e r racks work great w h e n lifting alone. Just set the pins slightly b e l o w the point of bar travel with scapulae fully retracted together b a c k toward the bench , lock out, and begin.

Start out with a weight that can be benched 8 to 10 reps until you have learned the m o v e m e n t and then add p o u n d a g e over time. Yes, y o u could do a "lockout shrug" by setting the pins a notch or so higher; that would m e a n starting the m o v e m e n t with the scapulae slightly spread. It's c o m m o n for a lifter to eventually h a n d l e several reps in the bench shrug with the s a m e weight as his best single bench press, or even m o r e.

I am talking about doing these without a b e n c h shirt and see no reason to use one. In fact a shirt m a y m a k e the bar difficult to reposition at the start of each rep. K e n Leistner reported g o o d results similar to those I m e n t i o n e d in his publication, The Steel Tip, February , w h e r e he suggested adding two sets of b e n c h shrugs at the end of a bench workout. I concur. This had two causes: However, if you do not use the "roll" and opt for the "lateral arch," this movement will still greatly strengthen the shoulder girdle for whatever purpose.

It's possible to do this m o v e on incline or decline b e n c h e s but it's trickier to control and m o r e limited in range. O l y m p i c lifters m a y want to try it on the incline as a support m o v e for the clean and jerk. Weightlifters h a v e been using scapular rotation as an exercise with the bar locked out overhead since the early s, according to the late C h e s t e r Teegarden.

L o w e r i n g and raising the bar in this m a n n e r greatly strengthens the shoulder girdle, but I advise starting light and working up. I'd advise caution using a snatch grip overhead, but lifters h a v e d o n e it that way for decades and m a n y still do. H e a v y loads with an extra w i d e grip can cause injury to the shoulder.

C l o s e grips are worth experimenting with, as is the Shrug D i p. T h e lifter a s s u m e s the position for dips but raises and lowers the body on straight a r m s by allowing the shoulders to rise toward the ears and then lifting the b o d y forcing the shoulders d o w n using pectoral, latissimus, and serratus contractions.

T h e use of a heavily loaded weight belt is a m u s t if Shrug D i p s are intended as an assistance exercise for the b e n c h press.

Bottom is also the retracted position during the Bench Shrug. Lateral Arch. These shots demonstrate a bench position with no lateral arch top and then with full scapular pinch together bottom. T h e first. T h e s e lifts are different b u t h a v e similar stages. Bench angles may be adjusted for different purposes. This varies d e p e n d i n g on the size and proportions of the lifter.

Here's w h a t I r e c o m m e n d in answer to the three questions above: In the deadlift. H a v e your training partners hand up the bar. Do not misunderstand. I approve. In the lower stages of the three lifts. At this point I'd like to ask three questions: A freestanding b e n c h is best.

C r u n c h the scapulae together. It's a specific m o v e m e n t within the clean and jerk or deadlift and is absolutely required in g y m training so that m a x i m u m height m a y be obtained. W h y do m a n y O l y m p i c lifters use only a clean-width grip in shrug training w h e n the w i d e grip used in snatching c a u s e s a different direction of pull force during contraction of the m u s c l e s involved? Mentally focus the contraction on a spot b e t w e e n the shoulder blades.

W h y do so m a n y lifters practice only the standing shrug w h e n the u p p e r b o d y in the first stage mentioned above is angled at 35 to 40 degrees in relationship to the floor and 55 to 65 in the s e c o n d? Lie face d o w n on a heavy-duty adjustable incline b e n c h set at 35 to 45 degrees. I am not leading a crusade against the standing shrug. W h y are deadlifters not using their competition.

T h e lower the angle of the bench. This angle should match the angle of the spine in relation to the floor during the initial drive of the pull.

T h i s usually h a p p e n s too fast for the untrained eye to follow. D o n ' t contract up toward the ears. A few sets of lat pulls and shrugs are tacked on at the end. At least twothirds of those lifts do not seriously challenge the lifter's ability to get his shoulders b a c k. G e t a full stretch every rep. W h y not practice shrugs on a b e n c h using the two angles a b o v e and w o r k all the muscles of the u p p e r back involved in d r a w i n g the shoulders to the rear?

Lean-forward shrugs will increase all lifters' ability to "set" their shoulders at the b e g i n n i n g of the lifts and k e e p the u p p e r back straight and the head up throughout. T h e standing shrugs are usually pulled up and then back. T h e scapulae m o v e toward each other as well as up.

Kelso's Shrug Book Pdf

Rules vary on this b e t w e e n federations. I agree. T h e r e is a trend in the last few years not to pull b a c k to the rear w h e n doing the standing shrug as an assistance exercise. T h i s setting aids the second stage of the lifts as the lifter drives toward the vertical.

O l y m p i c lifters should practice snatch grip shrugs at several angles as well as with the clean width grip. He called them "retractors. S o m e powerlifting federations n o w require only that the lifter stand erect. W i d e grip is the way it's d o n e during the snatch itself. F r o m what I read of top deadlifters' published routines. B e c a u s e of the angle of the arms during the snatch. T h i s not a g o o d practice for powerlifters as it m a y develop the bad habit of causing the bar to drop at the c o m pletion of the lift and earn a red light.

Truly prodigious p o u n d a g e s are possible. W h e n you clasp your forefinger over the nail for the h o o k grip. Rising powerlifter Josh B r y a n t reported as of J a n u a r y 2 0 0 2 to h a v e d o n e lbs x 5 reps in the standing shrug and a hold off the rack with ! He was twenty years old at the time and w e i g h e d around 3 0 0 pounds. If using the regular thumb-over-finger grip.

M a n y lifters are capable of handling h u g e weights for sets and reps with shrug m o v e m e n t s. We figured this trick was worth five additional p o u n d s on a lift.

I w o u l d be remiss if I did not point out that m a n y top deadlifters do not regularly practice shrugs. Y o u m i g h t practice the over-under competition deadlift grip regularly with the lean-forward shrugs for two reasons.

S o m e set their traps in a contracted u p w a r d position before starting the pull and try to hold that position throughout the rep. My training diary s h o w s a 55 lb gain in my DL after three m o n t h s of practicing these m o v e m e n t s at different angles the first time I tried them seriously. B a c k in the days w h e n the ' 5 5 C h e v y was the hottest car in A m e r i c a and I was trying to switch my style from splitting to squatting with the snatch lift. A Little Trick: This next has nothing to do with shrugs or traps but I'm going to shoehorn it in.

I suggest using an incline b e n c h or s o m e other support so that greater weights m a y be used and m o r e specific m u s c l e groups targeted. T h e s e shrugs will help keep the bar close to the b o d y which is very important.

M a n y a world title has been won by that margin. Not much. This will increase squatting ability as the lifter gains shoulder girdle stability.

U n l i k e the breathing style H i s e Shrug described in chapter two. Six to eight reps should be sufficient. B r e a t h e in and shrug up toward the ears with trap and scapular action. T h e H i s e shrug and high-rep breathing squats h a v e been the k e y to m a n y bulk and p o w e r courses since the s. This m o v e m e n t will get n e w trainees past the stage of the b a r hurting the shoulders.

B u t for competition training. O l y m p i c lifters will want to try snatch and clean grip shrugs at the positions discussed: Keith W a s s u n g told me in an email in February 2 0 0 0 that he d o e s this during a partial deadlift from his knees! W h a t kind of shrug variation could help the squat? I k n o w of no shrug that can build hip and thigh strength.

Do not use a powerlifter stance. T h e back shrugs I described will help keep the b a c k straight and the h e a d up during the squat. T h i s was the first shrug other than the basic standing m o v e m e n t I ever attempted. O b v i o u s l y I'm talking about the Hise Shrug see chapter t w o. Articles plagiarizing my work and signed by other writers have appeared in several of the " b e t t e r " publications in the g a m e. I w o u l d do them after the regular exercise they resemble most.

K e n Leistner's The Steel Tip. Please use these shrug variations as an adjunct to your regular training. As a general rule. I take it as a compliment! Texas-Style book from Iron M i n d Enterprises. A p p e n d i x II is a list of s o m e of the articles I've written on the subjects in this b o o k.

Articles about my work. The H. If you wish to do m o r e reading about shrugs. He had lower b a c k problems and had b e e n searching for a w a y to train the deadlift without aggravating his condition. In short. By developing the Gerard Trap Bar. W h i l e we are discussing biomechanics. I use the phrase "trap bar" generically to describe all such bars as a class. A t first glance. T h i s reduces lower back stress and shearing forces on the spine and knees.

T h e theory is simple: In the m i d s. This is simply not true. It will be back. I'd add that the trainee should also be careful of badly designed leg extension machines. I wrote them. Such n o n s e n s e only confuses the n e w trainees. I a s s u m e this would depend on the proportions and leverages of the lifter plus the characteristics. Studies conducted by Gerard and others suggest the reduction in stress to the lower back varies from 1 4. In addition to doing leg. He has used all the "trap b a r " m o v e m e n t s described here in his o w n training.

Gerard's first ad for his bar. With the iron closer to the b o d y and m o v i n g vertically parallel to the spine without body drag. S o m e think that m a c h i n e s provide the stability needed. T h e first thing I did w h e n I got my bar was load up for the bent over or Lat Shrug for the m i d d l e and lower trapezius area and lats. Regular standing trap bar shrugs can be d o n e straight up toward the ears without dragging the bar up the body. K n e e shearing forces are reduced as well.

Let's get back to w h a t these types of bars can do for the trainee. T h e response of the targeted m u s c l e g r o u p s was just terrific! T h e p a l m s facing feature of the bar provides the desired angle for m a x i m u m stretch and contraction while the braced b a r delivers stability.

K e n Leistner and m y s e l f pushed for deadlifts. B u t I digress. Al discovered that the bar could be applied to other exercises. M a n y top powerlifters can rep shrug m o r e than they can deadlift.

I believe the finest is the deadlift. M o s t advanced bodybuilders need m o r e weight than that for optimal development. T h e best way to perform any bent over shrug variation is face-down on a high r o w ing b e n c h or on an incline b e n c h set a low angle. But there are several problems with dumbbells: B e c a u s e the trainee must get low to begin. It is s o m e t i m e s difficult to get the bells into position without a spotter. T h e original bar could be loaded to pounds.

In the bent over position. Shrugs aside. T h e y better be able to. With a "trap bar. I k n o w m a n y experienced weight c o a c h e s hold that d u m b b e l l s are m o r e effective than a straight bar for shrugging.

A lot of effort is bled off into the lats and other torso m u s c l e s as the trainee tries to stabilize the weights and keep them "in the g r o o v e. A n d top O l y m p i c lifters can often shrug m o r e than they can clean.

T h e leg lift. This takes the lower back and legs out of the exercise and isolates the m u s c l e s targeted. So h o w can a trainee. This insures greater range of m o v e m e n t in both exercises and m u c h m o r e thigh involvement in the leglift. I gradually shifted to a m o r e specific powerlifting routine and then into a full p o w e r c y c l e.

N o w let's talk about training for c o m p e t i t i o n powerlifting using Al Gerard's system. My knees quit hurting and I a d d e d forty p o u n d s to my deadlift. At this time I w o u l d drop the upright r o w i n g and replace it with Lat S h r u g s on an incline b e n c h set at degrees.

Al G e r a r d stayed with his trap bar training for about three or four m o r e w e e k s and then converted to a full cycle of about eight w e e k s to p e a k out at the contest he'd been shooting at all along.

Lifters w h o think they need m o r e squat training m i g h t want to set up a three or four day p r o g r a m. After a few m o n t h s on this program. Here's h o w I would set it up: After three weeks.

See chapters two and three for the B e n c h Shrug. T h a t is w h y I practice several sets face-down on an incline b e n c h set at 35 degrees and then several sets with it set at 55 degrees. T h e s e correspond to my body position during the initial pull and secondary pull of the lift as the b o d y drives to the vertical.

Off blocks after weeks. T h e standing shrug is excellent for the upper trap. N o w get this! I will drop standing shrugs from the routine at this time and use only " K e l s o " or Lat shrugs on an incline bench set at various angles. Peaking Cycle T h e final eight weeks of the cycle is left up to the individual lifter to use a p r o g r a m he has found to be most successful in the past.

But the key function of the trapezius and other scapular retrac: T h i s reduces lower back stress while maintaining hip and thigh power. L o o k s like you are doing dips with the trap bar in your h a n d s or p e r h a p s negative dips. K e e p the b a c k as straight as possible. T h e c h a n g e in leverage provides advantages not found with straight bars.

S o m e m a k e s of bars n o w h a v e extension attachments so the bar can be used in a rack. Start in the low position. After standing erect. Deadlifts on blocks. Your ankles should line up just b e h i n d the yokes that hold the plates. As y o u r leverages are different with the trap bar. Do not roll back during powerlifting training. K e e p i n g the arms straight.

G r a b the handles. This enables me to press straight up with very little lean back. Select a weight that can be handled in rowing for eight reps. You can place the bar on freestanding squat racks or perhaps inside a p o w e r rack.

T h e outer deltoid will be strongly affected. Stand the bar up on the point of the bent c r o o k of the bar nearest you. I grab the h a n d l e s just forward of center so that the bar tips slightly to the rear. If you can't get the bar into position this way. Return to the sag position after every rep. Lean forward and put your head and shoulders into the bar so that the top crook h o o k s behind your neck across the shoulders. You can u s e the trap bar if you can get it into position.

W h e n practiced with the "pushing your feet through the floor" technique. If no comfortable w a y can be found. This would also be of aid in training the squat. L o w e r the bar for a full stretch and repeat. S e e m o r e on this in chapters one. S o m e m a y find it difficult to set up for this exercise. You m a y wish to use it after your b e n c h presses. More general basic courses using the "trap bar" are listed in Appendix I.

Your ankles should line up just behind the yokes that hold the weights. I expect to see m o r e deadlift records b r o k e n as word gets out about the trap bar.

It b e c o m e s second nature as you go along. U s e lighter weights until you are familiar with the feel of the trap bar. If not the bar will tip. Stand inside the bar with feet about shoulder width apart.

U s e good form at all times. Your grip should be in the center of the handles. Places more emphasis on quads and lower back. Deadlift or Leglift with Trap Bar. Deadlift on block. Al Gerard. Excellent for deltoids. Hiro has placed second at lbs. There is no body drag as with a straight bar. Good bulk movement.

Highpull works deltoids. T h a t title m a y be misleading. It's a great p r o g r a m for beginners and first year m e n to u s e in stimulating overall g r o w t h and building a basic foundation for the future.

Getting wider across and thicker front to back by e x p a n d i n g the rib c a g e will allow for m o r e m u s c u l a r weight to be carried. T h e exercises are for the m o s t part not secret or new. W h a t follows is a presentation of an older training principle that m a n y say is n o w outdated and which is out of favor in s o m e quarters. T h e following principles are d e s i g n e d to m a k e your chest wider and d e e p e r and spread your shoulders. T h e y train to e n h a n c e their ability in other sports or for their health.

I copyrighted the " B o n e Structure and G r o w t h C o u r s e " in shorter form than this chapter. T h e y are arranged h e r e in an order that will give m a x i m u m results. M a n y want to i m p r o v e their ability to do grip tricks to impress friends and win b a r r o o m bets. I'd get a call to perform in a few weeks. I would say that o n e and a half to three inches of chest gain can be expected in that first time period. A by-product for b e n c h press fanatics is that a larger rib cage and higher stern u m will shorten the lifter's stroke.

Your strength leverage should improve. For the routine to work best. Yet the literature of training contains m a n y stories of older m e n w h o claim success or at least satisfaction with this type of training.

A larger frame allows for m o r e m u s c u l a r weight to be gained. Critics of these m e t h o d s often state that they can only be effective for trainees under twenty three or so years old. It's not about bones. Very young trainees might achieve s o m e lengthening. See chapter three for ideas on that. Results vary from person to person.

Scientists are generally wary of g y m w i s d o m. I w a s a concert folksinger for m a n y years. E x p a n s i o n of the rib cage and will accomplish several things for you. The WeighTrainer. Your overall conditioning and e n d u r a n c e will improve. Your appearance and posture will improve. I do not claim any scientific expertise. Hise wrote fifty or m o r e years ago that the goal of rib expansion exercises is to place e n o u g h stretch on the costal cartilages to activate d o r m a n t m e s e n c h y m a l cells that exist in the adult hyaline cartilage so that they differentiate into adult cells.

If an older person has never trained before. He pretty m u c h scoffed at the idea of costal cartilage stretching or g r o w t h and even the existence of "inspiratory m u s c l e s " which he claimed would be involuntary m u s c l e s in any case.

His r e m a r k s were like m a n y of the nay-sayers on this subject. I've b e e n to two hundred-plus weightlifting and powerlifting contests and have yet to see a lifter walk out on to the platform carrying a two-by-four. T h e complaint is that doing this m a y put excess strain on the knees and set the lifter up for injury. My shirts b e c a m e tighter without weight gain. For a trainee w h o has had a very long layoff.

If a m u s c l e or b o d y part can be triggered voluntarily. B u t while learning to squat and developing flexibility along with the torso and shoulder girdle strength to support larger weights. I think I just wrote a n e w "Kelso's Law.

If you break at the hips first and sit b a c k into the squat. But the box squat has c o m e b a c k in the last five years or so and is again widely practiced by powerlifters. T h e s e things c o m e and go in weight training.

Now think about this: If you squat completely straight up and d o w n — a l l o w i n g y o u r knees to get far ahead out over y o u r toes—then you are transferring stress to y o u r knees. For instance. I have been in g y m s w h e r e the instructors will not permit u s e of a board or plate u n d e r the heels.

The exercise is perfectly safe. I'd c h o o s e a lighter weight shoe. O n e overlooked factor: B u t this won't work for everybody. M a n y weightlifters and powerlifters still insert a heel lift into their shoes.

I believe that is especially true with long-armed individuals. Several manufacturers m a k e shoes specifically for weightlifting and powerlifting. I'd say discard the board as soon as possible and get s o m e good shoes with a firm heel that suits you. In fact and I am a long lanky type genetically I did not put on major u p p e r b o d y m a s s until I included a lot of closer-than-normal hand spacing in my pressing and pulling m o v e m e n t s.

S e e chapter five for an explanation of the advantages. Training for a powerlifting meet is another matter. A p o w erlifer using a very w i d e stance probably would not benefit m u c h from a high heel.

It's a lot safer and more productive to do a heels raised OL squat than to do the flat-footed "parallel" gut-it-up abominations that most guys do.Just don't use the arms. In chapter four, I discuss the Shrug Hold, a technique applicable to m a n y m o v e ments. If y o u h a v e never trained at all. Shrug Training for the B e n c h Press 31 The "Lateral Arch" and gaining power and stability in the shoulder girdle for competition benching.

This is common in back routines. Finally, the overhand grip bent over shrug is just flat FINE for filling up the mid-scapular hollow with muscle. W h y do m a n y O l y m p i c lifters use only a clean-width grip in shrug training w h e n the w i d e grip used in snatching c a u s e s a different direction of pull force during contraction of the m u s c l e s involved?

W h a t shrug training is possible to m a x i m i z e lateral arch effectiveness and to m a i n t a i n that pinched-together rear position?

HEIDE from Thousand Oaks
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